Of the Islands discovered near the Continent of America in the Pacific Ocean.
CHAP. 15.An improvement which was made at this time [mid 16th ca.], in the mode of navigating between the ports of South America in the Pacific Ocean, brought into notice some islands situated a short distance to the West of the continent; and gave great encouragement to the undertaking of enterprises by sea, as it removed an apprehension which had been a great restraint on mariners in that part of the world. Along the coast of Peru, and part of the coast of Chili, the winds from the South are those which most generally prevail; and it had been a custom invariably adhered to by vessels bound from one port to another, to keep close to the land, from an idea, that if they were to lose sight of the coast, the trade wind would render their return impracticable. The passage from Peru to the ports of Chili was consequently tedious and difficult. A Spanish pilot, named Juan Fernandez, was the first who ventured to make the experiment of standing to a distance from the land*, where he found the winds favourable for getting to the South, and by running in that direction, till he was beyond the influence of the trade wind, he regained the coast without difficulty, making the passage much more expeditiously than it could have been
* Memorial of Juan Luis Arias, recommending the conversion of the natives of new discovered lands. Published by Al. Dalrymple, Esq. Edinburgh 1773.
CHAP. 15.performed by the in-shore navigation. In these new and circuitous tracks, several islands were found not far to the West of the American continent. The order in which they became known, is not stated here with certainty. The earliest date concerning them that has been met with in the present investigation, is given to the two islands named, one of them after its discoverer, Juan Fernandez,Islands Juan Fernandez, and Mas-a-fuera. and the other, being more distant from the continent, Mas-a-fuera (more without). According to the dictionary of Alcedo, these islands were first seen in 1563*. Juan Fernandez, the largest of the two, is in 33° 42' South latitude, and distant from the American coast 115 geographical leagues. Mas-a-fuera is 28 leagues to the West of J. Fernandez, and in latitude 33° 40' South. Whether they were inhabited or not, at the time they were first discovered by Europeans, is not noticed in the accounts of them. The land is habitable; and the writer of Commodore Anson's Voyage mentions, that Juan Fernandez obtained a grant of the island, which bears his name, on which he resided some time; but it was afterwards abandoned by him.
* Dicccionario Geographico Historico de las Ind. Occid. por D. Ant o de Alcedo. As there is not given above, any original description of the islands treated of in this chapter, it has been judged necessary to introduce a few additional remarks in the form of notes. More full and satisfactory accounts will occur in the relations of subsequent voyages, and will appear there with more propriety than they would in this place. Juan Fernandez is five leagues in length, and one in breadth; in shape irregular. It affords fresh water, wood, and near the North East side, anchorage. The Spaniards had a fort and garrison on the island in 1767. There is likewise anchorage, wood, and water, to be obtained at Mas-a-fuera, but not with the same degree of convenience as at Juan Fernandez. The South West point of Juan Fernandez, according to the observations of Captain Vancouver, is in 33° 45' South, and in longitude 78° 51' West, from the meridian of Greenwich. With this position the late Spanish charts agree.
The Galapagos.The group of islands under the equinoctial line, named Los Galapagos, appears with the same name in the map of
CHAP. 15.America and the South Sea, in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Ortelius, Edit. 1570, Map No 5; but as they are spread over a wide space, it is probable they were discovered long before. So early as in the time of P. Martire, it was said that islands had been seen in the South Sea to the West of the Pearl Islands*.
* P. Martire, Dec. 3. lib. 10. See likewise page 11 of this volume. [p. 11: “There came to me,” says P. Martire, “the day before the ides of October this year, 1516, Rodriguez Colminares, and Francisco de la Puente, who affirmed, one that he had heard of, the other that he had seen, divers islands in the South Sea to the West of the Pearl islands, in which trees are engendered and nourished, which bring forth aromatic fruits, as in India; … ”]
The Galapagos received their name from the circumstance of those islands being much frequented by turtle. They are barren and uninhabited. Although they are under the equinoctial line, the temperature of the air there is so fine and salubrious, that they have been called Encantadas, i.e. the Enchanted Islands. They are distant from the continent, from 170 to 210 geographical leagues.
Malpelo and Cocos Islands, the latter not with that name, are likewise in the same edition of Ortelius; but the islands of Juan Fernandez are not placed there, which is an argument, that the date of his discoveries is preceded by that of the other islands here mentioned.
Malpelo.Malpelo is a high and barren rock, surrounded with smaller rocks, and may be seen in clear weather at the distance of 20 leagues. It is situated near the fourth degree of North latitude †, and 45 leagues distant from the main land.
† The Spanish charts place the island Malpelo in 3° 55' North latitude. Captain Colnet [sic, Colnett] estimated its latitude, but not from observation, to be 4° 20' North. The name Malpelo, signifies ill covered, or bald.
Cocos Island.Cocos Island is likewise uninhabited; but it affords anchorage, (which is best near the North East extremity,) excellent water, wood, fish, and birds, and (which is not its least advantage, especially to ships that have been a length of time at sea) cocoanut trees grow there in such numbers, as to have given rise to
CHAP. 15. its present name. It was at first named Santa Crus, because it was discovered on the feast of the holy cross. * The latitude of the middle of the island is about 5° 30' North, and its distance from the nearest part of the continent, about 80 leagues †. Several rocks or small islands lay scattered round it within the distance of two or three miles.
* Alcedo's Dictionary. The year is not mentioned. Cocos Island and the Galapagos were formerly much frequented by the English buccaneers.
† The situation of the anchoring place at the North East part of Cocos Island, was settled by the observations of Captain Vancouver and his officers to be 5° 35' North latitude, and 86° 55' East longitude from Greenwich.
The Islands San Felipe and San Ambor, are among the discoveries made by Juan Fernandez; but they were not seen till some years later, and will be noticed in their proper place.
Buccaneers under John Cook arrive at Juan Fernandez. Account of William, a Mosquito Indian, who had lived there three years. They sail to the Galapagos Islands; thence to the Coast of New Spain. John Cook dies. Edward Davis chosen Commander.
The Buccaneers, finding they were expected on the coast, determined to go with their prizes first to the GalapagoThey sail to the Galapagos Islands.s Islands, and afterwards to the coast of New Spain.
They arrived in sight of the Galapagos on the 31st; but were not enough to the Southward to fetch the Southern Islands, the wind being from SbE, which Dampier remarks is the common trade-wind in this part of the Pacific. Many instances occur in South Sea navigations which shew the disadvantage of not keeping well to the South in going to the Galapagos.
The two ships anchored near the North East part of one of the Easternmost Islands, Duke of Norfolk's Island. in 16 fathoms, the bottom white hard sand, a mile distant from the shore.
It was during this visit of the Buccaneers to the Galapagos, that the chart of these Islands which was published with
Cowley's voyage was made. Considering the small opportunity for surveying which was afforded by their track, it may be reckoned a good chart, and has the merit both of being the earliest survey known of these Islands, and of having continued in use to this day; the latest charts we have of the GalapagosAt the Galapagos Islands. being founded upon this original, and (setting aside the additions) varying little from it in the general outlines.
Where Cook and Eaton first anchored, appears to be the Duke of Norfolk's Island of Cowley's chart. They found there sea turtle and land turtle, but could not stop only one night, on account of two of their prizes, which being deeply laden had fallen too far to leeward [North] to fetch the same anchorage.
The day following, they sailed on to the next Island Westward (marked King James's IslandJune.
King James's Island. in the chart) and anchored at its North end, a quarter of a mile distant from the shore, in 15 fathoms. Dampier observed the latitude of the North part of this second Island, 0°28'N, which is considerably more North than it is placed in Cowley's chart. The riding here was very uncertain, ‘the bottom being so steep that if an anchor starts, it never holds again.’
An errorMistake made by the Editor of Dampier's Voyages. has been committed in the printed Narrative of Dampier, which it may be useful to notice. It is there said, ‘The Island at which we first anchored hath water on the North end, falling down in a stream from high steep rocks upon the sandy bay, where it may be taken up.’ Concerning so essential an article to mariners as fresh water, no information can be too minute to deserve attention.
Concerning Fresh Water at King James's Island.
In the manuscript Journal, Dampier says of the first Island at which they anchored, ‘we found there the largest land turtle I ever saw; but the Island is rocky and barren, without wood or water.’ At the next Island at which they anchored, both Dampier and Cowley mention fresh water being found. Cowley says, ‘this
At the Galapagos Islands.Bay I called Albany Bay, and another place York Road. Here is excellent sweet water.’ Dampier also in the margin of his written Journal where the second anchorage is mentioned, has inserted the note following: ‘At the North end of the Island we saw water running down from the rocks.’ The editor or corrector of the press has mistakenly applied this to the first anchorage.
Cowley, after assigning names to the different Islands, adds, ‘We could find no good water on any of these places, save on the Duke of York's [i. e. King James's] Island. But at the North end of Albemarle Island there were green leavesHerbage on the North end of Albemarle Island. of a thick substance which we chewed to quench our thirst: and there were abundance of fowls in this Island which could not live without water, through we could not find it*.’
* The latter part of the above extract is from Cowley's Manuscript.—Captain Colnet when at the Galapagos made a similar remark. He says, ‘I was perplexed to form a conjecture how the small birds which appeared to remain in one spot, supported themselves without water; but some of our men informed me that as they were reposing beneath a prickly pear-tree, they observed an old bird in the act of supplying three young ones with drink, by squeezing the berry of a tree into their mouths. It was about the size of a pea, and contained a watery juice of an acid and not unpleasant taste. The bark of the tree yields moisture, and being eaten allays the thirst. The land tortoise gnaw and suck it. The leaf of this tree is like that of the bay-tree, the fruit grows like cherries; the juice of the bark dies the flesh of a deep purple.’ Colnet's Voyage to the South Sea, p. 53.
Animal food was furnished by the Galapagos Islands in profusion, and of the most delicate kind; of vegetables nothing of use was found except the mammee, the leaves just noticed and berries. The name Galapagos which has been assigned to these Islands, signifies Turtle in the Spanish language, and was given to them on account of the great numbers of those animals, both of the sea and land kind, found there. Guanoes, an amphibious animal well known in the West Indies, fish, flamingoes, and turtle-doves so tame that they would align upon the
June. men's heads, were all in great abundance; and convenient for preserving meat, salt was plentiful at the Galapagos. Some green snakes were the only other animals seen there.
At the Galapagos Islands.
Land Turtle. The full-grown land turtle were from 150 to 200 lbs. in weight. Dampier says, ‘so sweet that no pullet can eat more pleasantly. They are very fat; the oil saved from them was kept in jars, and used instead of butter to eat with dough-boys or dumplings.’—‘We lay here feeding sometimes on land turtle, sometimes on sea turtle, as they exceed in sweetness, so do they in numbers: it is incredible to report how numerous they are.’
Sea Turtle.The sea turtle at the Galapagos are of the larger kind of those called the Green Turtle. Dampier thought their flesh not so good as the green turtle of the West Indies.
Dampier describes the Galapagos Isles to be generally of good height: ‘four or five of the Easternmost Islands are rocky, hilly, and barren, producing neither tree, herb, nor grass; but only a green prickly shrub that grows 10 or 12 feet high, as big as a man's leg, and is full of sharp prickles in thick rows from top to bottom, without leaf or fruit. In some places by the sea side grow bushes of Burton wood (a sort of wood which grows in the West Indies) which is good firing. Some of the Westernmost of these Islands are nine or ten leagues long, have fertile land with mold deep and black; and these produce trees of various kinds, some of great and tall bodies, especially the Mammee.Mammee Tree. The heat is not so violent here as in many other places under the Equator. The time of year for the rains, is in November, December, and January.’
At Albany Bay, and at other of the Islands, the Buccaneers built storehouses, in which they lodged 5000 packs of their prize flour, and a quantity of sweetmeats, to remain as a reserved store to which they might have recourse on any future occasion. Part of this provision was landed at the
At the Galapagos Islands.Islands Northward of King James' Island to which they went in search of fresh water, but did not find any. They endeavoured to sail back to the Duke of York's Island, Cowley says, ‘there to have watered,’ but a current setting Northward prevented them.
On June the 12th, they sailed from the Galapagos Islands for the Island Cocos, where they proposed to water. The wind at this time was South; but they expected they should find, as they went Northward, the general trade-wind blowing from the East; and in that persuasion they steered more Easterly than the line of direction in which Cocos lay from them, imagining that when they came to the latitude of the Island, they would have to bear down upon it before the wind. Contrary however to this expectation, as they advanced Northward they found the wind more Westerly, till it settled at SWbS, and they got so far Eastward, that they crossed the parallel of Cocos without being able to come in sight of it.
Buccaneers under Edward Davis. At Amapalla Bay; Cocos Island; The Galapagos Islands; Coast of Peru. Peruvian Wine. Knight quits the South Sea. Bezoar Stones. Marine productions on Mountains. Vermejo. Davis joins the French Buccaneers at Guayaquil. Long Sea Engagement.
At the Galapagos Islands.Davis and Knight continued to associate, and sailed together from Cocos Island to the Galapagos. At one of these Islands they found fresh water; the buccaneer Journals do not specify which Island, nor any thing that can be depended upon as certain of its situation. Wafer only says, ‘From Cocos we came to one of the Galapagos Islands. At this Island there was but one watering-lace, and there we careened our ship.’ Dampier was not with them at this time; but in describing the Galapagos Isles, he makes the following mention of Davis's careening place. ‘Part of what I say of these Islands I had from Captain Davis, who was there afterwards, and careened his ship at neither of the Islands that we were at in 1684, but went to other Islands more to the Westward, which he found to be good habitable Islands, having a deep fat soil capable of producing any thing that grows in those climates: they are well watered, and have plenty of good timber. Captain Harris came hither likewise, and found some Islands that had plenty of mammee-trees, and pretty large rivers. They have good anchoring in many places, so that take the Galapagos
At the Galapagos Islands.Islands by and large, they are extraordinary good places for ships in distress to seek relief at.’ *
* Dampier. Manuscript Journal.
Wafer has not given the date of this visit, which was the second made by Davis to the Galapagos; but as he stopped several weeks in the Gulf of Amapalla for the recovery of his sick, and afterwards made some stay at Cocos Island, it must have been late in the year, if not after the end, when he arrived at the Galapagos, and it is probable, during, or immediately after, a rainy season.
The account published by Wafer, excepting what relates to the Isthmus of Darien, consists of short notices set down from recollection, and occupying in the whole not above fifty duodecimo pages. He mentions a tree at the Island of the Galapagos where they careened, like a pear-tree, ‘low and not shrubby, very sweet in smell, and full of very sweet gum.’
Davis and Knight took on board their ships 500 packs or sacks of flour from the stores which had formerly been deposited at the Galapagos. The birds had devoured some, in consequence of the bags having been left exposed.
On the Coast of Peru.From the Galapagos, they sailed to the coast of Peru, and cruised in company till near the end of 1686.
Edward Davis; his Third visit to the Galapagos. One of those Islands, named Santa Maria de l'Aguada by the Spaniards, a Careening Place of the Buccaneers. Sailing thence Southward they discover Land. Question, whether Edward Davis's Discovery is the Land which was afterwards named Easter Island? Davis and his Crew arrive in the West Indies.
Davis sails to the Galapagos Islands.Davis again sailed to the Galapagos Islands, to victual and refit his ship. Lionel Wafer was still with him, and appears to have been one of those to whom fortune had been most unpropitious. Wafer does not mention either the joining company with the French Buccaneers, or the plunder of Guayaquil; and particularizes few of his adventures. He says, ‘I shall not pursue all my coasting along the shore of Peru with Captain Davis. We continued rambling about to little purpose, sometimes at sea, sometimes ashore, till having spent much time and visited many places, we were got again to the Galapagos; from whence we were determined to make the best of our way out of these seas.’
At the Galapagos they again careened; and there they victualled the ship, taking on board a lrage supply of flour, curing fish, salting flesh of the land turtle for sea store; and they saved as much of the oil of the land turtle as filled sixty jars (of eight gallons each) which proved excellent, and was thought not inferior to fresh butter.
Captain Colnet was at the Galapagos in the years 1793 and 1794, and found traces, still fresh, which marked the haunts of the Buccaneers. He says, ‘At every place where we landed
At the Galapagos Islands.
King James's Island.on the Western side of King James's Isle, we might have walked for miles through long grass and beneath groves of trees. It only wanted a stream to compose a very charming landscape. This Isle appears to have been a favourite resort of the Buccaneers, as we found seats made by them of earth and stone, and a considerable number of broken jars scattered about, and some whole, in which the Peruvian wine and liquors of the country are preserved. We also found daggers, nails, and other implements. The watering-place of the Buccaneers was at this time (the latter part of April or beginning of May) entirely dried up, and there was only found a small rivulet between two hills running into the sea; the Northernmost of which hills forms the South point of Fresh Water Bay. There is plenty of wood, but that near the shore is not large neought for other use than fire-wood. In the mountains the trees may be larger, as they grow to the summilts. I do not think the watering-place we saw is the only one on the Island, and I have no doubt, if wells were dug any where beneath the hills, and not near the lagoon behind the sandy beach, that fresh water would be found in great plenty*.’
* Colnet's Voyage to the Pacific, pp. 156-7
Since Captain Colnet's Voyage, Captain David Porter of the American United States' frigate Essex, has seen and given descriptions of the Galapagos Islands. He relates an anecdote which accords with Captain Colnet's opinion of ther being fresh water at King James Island. He landed, on its West side, four goats (one male and three female) and some sheep, to graze. As they were tame and of their own accord kept near the landing-place, they were left every night without a keeper, and water was carried to them in the morning. ‘But one morning, after they had been on the island several days and nights,
At the Galapagos Islands.the person who attended them went on shore as usual to give them water, but no goats were to be found: they had all as with one accord disappeared. Several persons were sent to search after them fror two or three days, but without success.’ Captain Porter concluded that they had found fresh water in the interior of the Island, and chose to remain near it. ‘One fact,’ he says, ‘was noticed by myself and many others, the day preceding their departure, which must lead us to believe that something more than chance directed their movements, which is, that they all drank an unusual quantity of water on that day, as though they had determined to provide themselves with a supply to enable them to reach the mountains*.’
* Journal of a Cruize to the Pacific Ocean, by Captain David Porter, in the years 1812-13 & 1814.
Davis and his men had leisure for search and to make every kind of experiment; but no one of his party has given any description or account of what was transacted at the Galapagos in this his third visit. Light, however, has been derived from late voyages.
The Island S ta Maria de l'Aguada, a Careening Place of the Buccaneers.It has been generally believed, but not till lately ascertained, that Davis passed most of the time he was amongst the Galapagos, at an Island which the Spaniards have designated by the name of S ta Maria de l'Aguada, concerning the situation with the Spaniards as well as geographers of other countries have disagreed. A Spanish pilot reported to Captain Woodes Rogers that S ta Maria de l'Aguada lay by itself, (i.e. was not one of a groupe of Islands) in latitude 1° 20' or 1° 30' S, was a pleasant Island, well stocked with wood, and with plenty of fresh water†. Moll, DeVaugondy, and others, combining the accounts
† Cruising Voyage round the World, by Captain Woodes Rogers, in the years 1708 to 1711, pp. 211 and 265, 2d edition. London, 1718.
S ta Maria de l'Aguada.given by Dampier and Woodes Rogers, have placed a S ta Maria de l'Aguada several degrees to the Westward of the whole of Cowley's groupe. Don Antonio de Ulloa, on the contrary, has laid it down as one of the Galapagos Isles, but among the most South-eastern of the whole groupe. More consonant with recent information, Pascoe Thomas, who sailed round the world with Commodore Anson, has given from a Spanish manuscript the situations of different Islands of the Galapagos, and among that that of S ta Maria de l'Aguada. The most Western in the Spanish list published by Thomas is named S ta Margarita, and is the same with the Albemarle Island in Cowley's chart. The S ta Maria de l'Aguada is set down in the same Spanish list in latitude 1° 10' S, and 19 minutes in longitude more East than the longitude given of S ta Margarita, which situation is due South of Cowley's King James's Island.
Captain Colnet saw land due South of King James's Island, which he did not anchor at or examine, and appears to have mistaken for the King Charles's Island of Cowley's chart. On comparing Captain Colnet's chart with Cowley's, it is evident that Captain Colnet has given the name of Lord Chatham's Isle to Cowley's King Charles's Island, the bearings and distance from the South end of Albemarle Island being the same in both, i.e. due East about 20 leagues. It follows that the Charles Island of Colnet's chart was not seen by Cowley, and that it is the S ta Maria de l'Aguada of the Spaniards. It has lately been frequented by English and American vessels employed in the South Sea Whale Fishery, who have found a good harbour on its North side, with wood and fresh water; and marks are yet discoverable that it was formerly a careening place of the buccaneers. Mr. Arrowsmith has added this harbour to Captain Colnet's chart, on the authority of information communicated by the master of a South Sea whaler.
S ta Maria de l'Aguada. From Captain David Porter's Journal, it appears that the watering place at S ta Maria de l'Aguada is three miles distant from any part of the sea-shore; and that the supply it yields is not constant. On arriving a second time at the Galapagos, in the latter part of August, Captain Porter sent a boat on shore to this Island. Captain Porter relates, ‘I gave directions that our former watering-place there should be examined, but was informed that they were entirely dried up.’
Cowley's chart, being original, a buccaneer performance, and not wholly out of use, is annexed to this account [see p. 144]; with the insertion, in unshaded outline, of the S ta Maria de l'Aguada, according to its situation with respect to Albemarle Island, as laid down in the last edition of Captain Colnet's chart, published by Mr. Arrowsmith. This unavoidably makes a difference in the latitude equal to the difference between Cowley's and Captain Colnet's latitude of the South end of Albemarle Island. In Captain Colnet's chart, the North end of S ta Maria de l'Aguada is laid down in 1° 15' S.
The voyage of the Essex gives reasonable expectation of an improved chart of the Galapagos Isles, the Rev. Mr. Adams, who sailed as Chaplain in that expedtion, having employed himself in surveying them.
Davis sails from the Galapagos to the Southward.When the season approached for making the passage round Cape Horne, Davis and his company quitted their retreat. The date of their sailing is unknown. Wafer relates, ‘From the Galapagos Islands we went again for the Southward, intending to touch no where till we came to the Island Juan Fernandez. … ’
Voyage of M. de Beuchesne Gouin.
At the Galapagos Islands.After four months continuance on the coast of Chili and Peru, M. de Beauchesne sailed for the Galapagos Islands, and anchored at one of them on the 7th of June. They furnished themselves with turtle of both kinds, and took fish with the line; but found no fresh water. De Villefort says, ‘The earth of this Island, if earth may be called that on which is no soil, is extremely burnt and split into precipices and abysses, and appears like black metallic rocks overturned by subterranean fires. It is dangerous walking on them, for they tremble on all sides. Our boat found a good port sheltered by a small Island, the entrance of which is to the West. We found the remains of materials for the repair of ships, by which we knew it to be the Isle à Tabac,§ Isle à Tabac.
I. de Santé where the English Buccaneers had used to careen. The Isle de Santé where we anchored on June the 10th, is 20 leagues from Isle à Tabac, and is also burnt up. The trees there are extremely dry, except near the border of the sea, where was some verdure. At a league distance from a Bay at the NW part of Santé,§§ I found a small spring of fresh water, the only one met with. The Isle Mascarin,I. Mascarin. to which we afterwards went, in 1° 12' South latitude, was no better than the others.’ There can be no certainty which of the Islands in the chart of the Galapagos were intended in the foregoing description.
§ de Tabac elsewhere.
§§ Probably Post Office Bay, Isla Floreana.
1700.From the Galapagos they returned to the Continent, finding in the passage much Westwardly current. They remained on the coast of Peru and Chili till near the end of the year, and procured supplies of provisions, notwithstanding the orders.
Voyage of the Ships Duke and Dutchess, of Bristol, round the World. [Woodes Rogers]
May.On May the 8th, the Duke and Dutchess, with four prize vessels, sailed from the coast of Peru for the Galapagos Islands, carrying with them some Spaniards who had been delivered as hostages for payment of the ransom, the terms agreed upon not having been fulfilled by about 3000 dollars.
In the passage to the Galapagos, the fever broke out on board the ships, and immediately spread in an alarming manner.
‘This day, the 11th, say the Journal, Captain Courtney was taken ill, and Captain Dover went on board the Dutchess to prescribe for him. Twenty of our men have been taken ill within this twenty-four hours of a malignant fever, we suppose contracted at Guayaquil’.
At the Galapagos Islands.The 16th in the forenoon, they came in sight of the Galapagos Islands. At this time sixty men were in the sick list on board the Duke, and above eighty on board the Dutchess. On arriving near the land, it was agreed for the vessels to separate to different Islands, that they might the better search for fresh water, and a ‘remarkable Rock’ was fixed upon near which to rendzvous after the search. Turtle, fish, and wood,
Prize commanded by Simon Hatley, missing.were found, but no fresh water was discovered. On the 22d, five out of the six vessels has reassembled near the Rendezvous Rock. The one missing was a prize bark in the charge of Simon Hatley, the Third Mate of the Dutchess, who had with him five seamen, four negroes, and an American Indian. At the time she parted from the other vessels, she had on board fresh water for not more than two days at the common allowance. One of the prize vessels, and boats, were first sent in quest of here; and afterwards, the Duke and Dutchess, and the other prizes cruised among the Islands, firing guns and carrying lights abroad during the night; which was continue till the 26th; but nothing of Hatley's vessel was seen.
Unfortunately, and rather unaccountably, Captain Rogers had neglected to take a supply of fresh water on board his ships whilst they were in the Bay of Guayaquil. Since their arrival at the Galapagos, ten men of the crews had died, and the sickness still raged: they were now threatened with a scarcity of water, on which accounts it was determined in a consultation, to stand over to the Continent to water the ships, and to return to the Galapagos to llok for Simon Hatley and his men.
The Island of the Galapagos first made by the Duke and Dutchess was the King Charles's Island of Cowley's chart; and it is probable, that his Rendezvous Rock is the Dalrymple Rock of Captain Colnet's chart. Captain Rogers in expressing his regret that he had not watered his ships before he sailed to the Galapagos, says that he was thereby prevented from giving himself time to look for the Island Santa Maria de l'Aguada, ‘reported to be one of the Galapagos where there is good water, timber, and a safe road, where it is said Captain Davis the Buccaneer lay some months and recruited to content.’
On the evening of the 26th they made sail from the Galapagos, and on June June. the 5th they made the Continent. The same day, they captured a small vessel from Panama bound for Guayquil, having on board some passengers and negroes. The
At the Island Gorgona.7th, they anchored by the East side of Gorgona, where they found fresh water, and took a supply. The 8th, their boats chased and captured a small bark, with salt and brandy, and about the value of 500 l. in gold. Captain Rogers stopped at Gorgona to careen the Duke and Dutchess, and at the same time the prize Havre de Grace was equipped as an associate, being mounted with 20 guns, and manned with sixty men from the crews of the Duke and Dutchess, and seventeen black men; Edward Cook was appointed to command her, and her name was changed to that of the Marquis.
July.July the 11th, they landed a number of prisoners on the main land. On the 18th, a negroe belonging to the Dutchess was bit by a small brown-speckled snake, and died within twelve hours after.
Snakes.There are many snakes on Gorgona, some very large. Woodes Rogers saw one as thick as his leg and three yards long. He describes an animal caught at Gorgona, which he calls a Sloth;Animal called a Sloth. ‘in appearance it had some resemblance to a monkey of the middling sort. One was set loose at the lower part of the mizen shrouds, and he was two hours in getting up to the top-mast head.’ No land birds were seen at Gorgona, which was attributed to the woods being peopled with monkeys.
The ships remained at Gorgona till August, with tents erected on shore for the sick. During that time they had frequent communication with the Spaniards on the main, many of whom came to purchase prize goods, for which they paid sometimes in money and sometimes in provisions. The most valuable of the prize goods that were not disposed of, were taken into the Duke, Dutchess and Marquis, and the prize vessels, the Marquis excepted, were purchased by their former possessors. Captain Rogers proposed that the Marquis should be sent to Brasil, where he thought her cargo might be disposed of to much advantage; but the majority of the council opposed such a separation.
August. Coast of Peru.August the 7th, they sailed from Gorgona, bound Southward; but by currents and the lightness of the breezes they were kept a week in sight of the Island. On board the Duke were 35 stout negroes, selected from those taken in Spanish vessels to serve as part of the Duke's crew. Captain Rogers called them together, and told them that in the event of meeting an enemy, if they fought and behaved themselves well they should be free men; ‘on which thirty-two of them immediately promised to stand to their quarters as long as the best Englishman, and desired they might be improved in the use of arms. Upon this I made Michael Kendall, the Jamaica free negroe, their leader, to exercise them. To confirm out contract, I made them drink a dram all round to our good success.’
The 18th, they took a small bark from Panama bound for Guayaquil, with 24 negroes in her. They learnt by this vessel that two large French ships were cruising in search of them. On the 24th, they anchored in the Bay de AtacamesBay de Atacames.
Fresh Water Rivers. which is on the ENE of Cape San Francisco, where they watered, there being two small rivers near the Village de Atacames, which their boats could enter at half flood. Whilst they lay in this bay, both Spaniards and Natives came to trade with them. One merchant, by name Señor Navarre, brought goods and slaves to the value of 3,500 dollars, and they took in payment his written obligation or bond to remit that sum to Jamaica by way of Portobello, for the owners of the Duke and Dutchess.
Westward from the Bay of Atacames, about half way towards Cape San Francisco, is a point off which runs a small shoal, on which account it is recommended not to approach nearer than within half a league of the shore; and also not to anchor in less depth than six fathoms near this shore, because the tides sometimes, out of the ordinary course, ebb exceedingly low.
On the 31st, the three ships, with a tender, left the coast
September. At the Galapagos Islands.to return to the Galapagos. September the 10th, they anchored at one of the Islands, opposite to a white sandy bay, and within less than a mile of the shore, a great rock bearing from then N b E, distant six miles; and a small white rock which appeared like a sail bearing W b S about four miles distant.
Here they supplied themselves with land and sea turtel, fish, good salt, and wood. No fresh water was found, nor was it now much sought after. Search was made for the bark which Simon Hatley had commanded, but nothing was seen that gave any information concerning her or her people. The rudder and bowsprit of a small vessel were found, which at first were supposed to have belonged to Hatley's; but on examination that appeared to be much older.
Of the Island Santa Maria de l'Aguada.Woodes Rogers, in this part of his Journal, speaks again of the Santa Maria de l'Aguada. He says, ‘The Spanish reports agree that there is but one Island that has any fresh water; which lies in 1° 30' S. Señr. Morell [a Spanish sea captain, but then prisoner] tells me, that a Spanish ship of way employed to cruise agains the pirates, was once at an Island which lies by itself in the latitude of 1° 20' or 1°30' S. They call it Santa Maria de l'Aguada, a pleasant Island and good road, full of wood and plenty of water, and turtle of both sorts, with fish. I believe this to be no other then the same Island where Captain Davis the buccaneer recruited, and all the light he has left to find it again is, that it lies to the Westward of those Islands he was at with the other Buccaneers.’
The Galapagos Islands, from their proximity to the Continent, havd not constantly the regular trade-wind, and the sea near them is subject to strong currents. Captain Colnet remarked, in the month of June, near the Galapagos, a current so strong and irregular as to change the ship's course agains the helm, though sailing at the rate of 3½ miles per hour*. The dif-
* Colnet's Voyage, p. 45-46.
1709.ference in the reckonings of navigators produced by these currents and light variable winds, caused a belief that there were two groups of Islands in the parallel of the Galapagos, about 100 leagues apart from each other. The prevelance of this opinion is noticed by Captain Rogers; and many charts composed in the middle of the eighteenth centure accord with it.
September the 17th, Captain Rogers sailed from the Galapagos Islands for the coast of New Spain, with the intention to look out for the arrival of the Galeon from the Philippines, and afterwards to sail for the East Indies.