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Part II: J thru Z

This document contains explanatory notes and background information on various authors and cartographers cited in the Bibliographies and Table. Each Bibliography, Maps or other button is a link to the appropriate bibliographic or other citation.

Michael H. Jackson

p.4. The following table is in both editions.

Island Names and Their Derivations
English Name Origin Spanish Name Origin Official Name ‡
AbingtonEarl of Abington PintaCaravel PintaPinta
AlbemarleDuke of Albemarle IsabelaIsabella of Castile, Queen of SpainIsabela
BarringtonAdmiral Samuel Barrington, R.N. Santa FeCapitalaciones de Santa FeSanta Fe
BartholomewLt. David Bartholomew, R.N. Bartoloméprobably from SlevinBartolomé
BeagleHMS Beagle  Beagle
BindloeCaptain John Bindloe MarchenaFray Antonio MarchenaMarchena
BrattleNicholas Brattle TortugaSpanish for turtleTortuga
CaldwellAdmiral Caldwell, R.N.  Caldwell
ChampionAlexander Champion, whaler Campeón
CharlesKing Charles II Santa Maria orCaravel Saint Mary (Santa Maria, second ed.)Santa Maria
Floreana Floriferous [sic, in first ed.]
Pres. Juan José Flores in second ed.
ChathamWilliam Pitt, First Earl of Chatham San CristóbalSaint Christopher, Patron saint of sailorsSan Cristóbal
CowleyAmbrose Cowley, buccaneer  Cowley
CrossmanRichard Crossman Los Hermanos §
CulpepperLord Culpepper Darwin §
DaphneHMS Daphne Daphne
DuncanAdmiral Viscount Duncan, R.N. PinzónBrothers PinzónPinzón
EnderbySamuel Enderby, whaler  Enderby
Guy FawkesThe English conspirator Guy Fawkes
HoodAdm. Viscount Samuel Hood, R.N. EspañolaEspaña (Spain)Española
IndefatigableHMS Indefatigable Santa CruzHoly CrossSanta Cruz
JamesKing James II Santiago †Spanish for JamesSan Salvador
San SalvadorFirst island discovered in America
JervisAdmiral John Jervis RábidaConvent “de la RábidaRábida
Nameless  Sin NombreSpanish for NamelessSin Nombre
NarboroughAdmiral Sir John Narborough FernandinaFerdinand of Aragon, King of SpainFernandina
Plaza  PlazaPresident L. PlazaPlaza
Seymour, North (Seymour Norte, 2nd ed.) Seymour
Seymour, South BaltraBaltra
Tower †† GenovesaGenoa, Italy, supposed birthplace of ColumbusGenovesa
WenmanLord Wainman WolfEcuadorian geologistWolf
* Minor revisions made here to place first column in alphabetical order.
† Denotes boxed name in first edition, underlined in second edition, to indicate author's preferred usage, instead of official name.
†† Same in first edition, but official name is given preferred usage in second edition.
‡ This column omitted in second edition; Same name in col. 1 or 3 set in boldface to indicate official name.
§ This name omitted in second edition.

Pauline King Joerger

“We passed close to the Redondo Island [Rosa Redonda], a curious looking rock.”
The bracketed (and incorrect) citation was inserted during book production and is not found in Robert Dampier's original ms.

Irving and Electa Johnson

In Westward Bound …, p. 74. “The Spanish name, Nightmare Island, seems much more suitable than [Tower].”

The Table below summarizes the seven circumnavigations of the first (white background) and second ships named Yankee. Blank or incomplete space indicates unknown information, pending further research. Number(s) following colon are page number(s) for information in cited book.

Start Voyage §Arrived GalápagosLeft GalápagosEnd VoyageLogbooks †Described in Book
1933, 5 November1933, 25 Decemberunknown1934, 5 May24/? & ?Westward bound in the Schooner Yankee: 37
1936, 1 Novemberlate December(2½ weeks later)1938, 1 May24/4 & 6Wittmer: 109, Sailing to See: 9, 67, (76-79 photos)
1939, 29 October1941, 27 April25/7 & 9  
1947, 2 November1947, Decemberlate December1949, 1 May26/10 & 15Wittmer: 195, Yankee's Wander World: 40, 48, 65
1950, 29 October1952, 15 January‡27/16 & 19 
1953, 1 November1953, 11 December1954, early January1955, 1 May28/20 & 24Yankee's People and Places: 24, 54-70 (graffiti)
1956, 4 November1956, December 1958, 4 May29/25 & 29(graffiti)
§ “We always leave Gloucester on the Sunday nearest the first of November.” Yankee's Wander World, p. 41.
† Logbooks at Mystic Seaport; Johnson Collection. X/Y & Z format indicates Box number/Logbook volume numbers for Start & End dates.
‡ Early end date may indicate a missing volume containing final entries from 16 January through actual end date. In support of this, a New York Times report dated April 28 states: “ … the ninety-foot brigantine Yankee ended an eighteen-month cruise around the world this afternoon by arriving at the State Fish Pier [Gloucester, MA] on schedule.”

Captain Charles Johnson

Johnson's 1726 History is included here because it is the source of a variant of Herman Moll's Map of the Middle Part of America. The map in most editions of Dampier's New Voyage shows the track of his ship. However, the variant in the Johnson edition omits this track and makes several other changes, as summarized in a Table of Differences accompanying the illustration of both editions of the map. See Herman Moll bibliography for details.

Various authorities have argued for and against the claim that “Captain Charles Johnson” was a pseudonym of Daniel Defoe. Failing conclusive evidence, Johnson's actual identity remains unknown.

James Johnstone

The following excerpt is from W. Kaye Lamb's introduction to The Voyage of George Vancouver: 1791-1795.
p. 266: “Other items of interest at Taunton include 11 rough surveys by Johnstone (… seven of the Galapagos Islands).” The editor may have assumed the Taunton Ms. reference number (231/7) indicated seven Galápagos charts, but in fact there is only one. The chart shows fragments of the present Islas Isabela and Fernandina (neither identified by name on the chart). Johnstone was Master of HMS Chatham, which travelled in company with Vancouver's HMS Discovery. See also Joseph Baker.

Tom Johnstone

Tom Johnstone was a crew member on the Zavorah, Capt. Charles Hubbard, on its six-month voyage from Boston to San Pedro, California. While in Galápagos, Johnstone took photos at Isla San Cristóbal, Pinnacle Rock, and Isla Floreana. His Pinnacle Rock photos show that its shape has not changed significantly between 1937 and 2005, thus contradicting the legend that it was “blasted” into its present shape by US military forces during WWII, as reported by several accounts.

Alf Kastdalen

Excerpts describing animals introduced on Isla Santa Cruz.

Kemp and Lloyd

The authors state that Cowley “ … concealed for a time his name under the pseudonym of ‘an ingenious Englishman.’ ”

In Whitehall Ms. 4, an unknown copyist describes one of Cowley's manuscripts as “An Exact Journal … by an Ingenious Englishman.” But this is the copyist's description of the author, and not the author's description of himself. There is no known evidence that Cowley ever disguised his identity, and his name is prominently displayed on the first page of all but one of the known copies of his manuscript journal. In fact, the possibility that a captain [John Cook, and later, John Eaton] and an entire ship's company would place themselves in the care of a master's mate with no name is so ludicrous that one may wonder what possessed Kemp and Lloyd to make this claim.

Kemp and Lloyd also appear to be the originators of several interesting variations on other facts. For example, Cowley clearly states how the crew disposed of their first ship, the Revenge. They “ … set her on fire, by reason she should tell no tales.” Kemp and Lloyd revise this to “One account suggests that she was burned ‘that she might tell no tales’ … [but] … another and possibly more likely statement is that she was exchanged farther down the coast for sixty young negro girls who served as a diversion for the buccaneers until they perished miserably one by one in the icy wastes of the Antarctic.” The source of this information is unknown, and it is assumed here that it is the invention of the authors, for reasons known (one hopes) only to themselves. Apparently though, one of these noted historians forgot some of the details: in a subsequent biography of William Dampier, Lloyd writes that “How they disposed of the Revenge and of the sixty black girls they found on board their prize, we do not know.”

Lloyd may also have forgotten his actual source for the following tidbit on Dampier's character: “One of the gentlemen of the Royal Society, of a higher station in life than he could ever aspire to, whom he met at the time that he dined with Evelyn and Pepys, called him ‘a blunt fellow, but of better understanding than would have been expected from one of his education’.” Lloyd does not identify the gentleman of high station, and the only known account of the dinner is an entry in the diary of John Evelyn: “6th August, 1698. I dined with Pepys, where was Captain Dampier. … He seemed a more modest man than one would imagine by the relation of the crew he had assorted with.” Presumably Lloyd read, and then forgot, a letter by Charles Hatton to his brother Christopher, written about one year before Dampier dined with Pepys. Hatton begins “I have discoursed with Dampier” and then offers the “blunt fellow” description which Lloyd claims occurred at the dinner with Samuel Pepys.

Robert Kerr

Darwin cites Kerr's Voyages as the source of his information about Captain Woodes Rogers, whom Darwin mis-identifies as “Woods, Rogers” (in Journal and Remarks) and as “Wood and Rogers” (in Journal of Researches). Kerr identifies the Captain as Woods [sic] Rogers, so the comma and subsequent “and” errors are probably Darwin's own. Kerr is also cited in Chapter V (“Bahia Blanca”) of Darwin's Journal.

Richard Darwin Keynes

p. 351. September 16th. “The next day we ran near Hoods Isd & there left a (“the” in Barlow) Whale boat.” Compare with FitzRoy.
p. 357. September 28th. “Steered towards the Southern end of Albermale Isd, which was surveyed.” Editor's note (1) gives correct spelling. Darwin's misspelling is consistent, but corrected without comment in Barlow and other editions.

John Kricher

The book repeats many of the historical errors found elsewhere in the literature, and introduces a few new ones too.
p. 7: “Ortelius gave the archipelago the name Insulae de los de Galopegos.”
p. 8: Diego de Rivadeneira was a Spanish pirate.
p. 9: American soldiers shot land iguanas for amusement.
p. 10: Dr. Ritter and Dore Strauch were married.
p. 11: Lorenz perished on an exploration trip.
p. 19: “Names of the Largest Galápagos Islands” table shows Cowley misspelled as Crowley (and so on).

Robert Langdon

Pages 33-46 are a chronological listing of whaling ships in Galápagos from 1793 through 1907. Pages 46-55 present the same list sorted by island name. The lists are collated from ships' logs held in more than 40 museums and private collections in New England, and represent the microfilm collections of these logs held at various Australian libraries. The locations of the original logs are not given in this volume, but may be found by consulting the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau website.

p. 54 shows the following entry: Perry's Island 1860, 2-13 July Vigilant

This is a reference to Remarks On Board Bark Vigilant of New Bedford, Frederick P. Cole, Master. The entry for Sunday, July 2nd reads in part: “This afternoon the three barks anchored in the bay at Perrys Isthmus.” Apparently the last word was mis-read as “Island.”

Vernon Lange

The Wittmers of Floreana is an excerpt from the author's unpublished autobiography, written when he participated in a creative-writing class.

Benedetto Lanza

p. 584. List, and chart facing page includes the following Islas/Islotes (and others):

Punta Bowditch (16) Pan de Azucar (18) (xx) is key to map
facing p. 584 and
p. 18 (Lanza et al 1982).
Jardinero cerca Española (42) Roca Pateadora (39)
Jardinero cerca S. María (23) Tiburón [1] (6)
Mares (37) Tiburón [2] o Beagle (14)

p. 843. “ … che propórrei di chiamare Escollo de Punta Bowditch: il minore e più vicino alla costa, Islote de P. B. Meridional e Islote de P. B. Septentrional.
p. 75. Location of Islote de Santa Fe (Barrington Islet) is given.
p. 80. Location of “Islote Coamaño [sic] (Jensen Islet)” is given, with chart as Figure 5.
p. 80. Footnote 7 states that Isla Caamaño is “Named Johnson by Brosset (p. 104), Jenson by Lévêque, and Camaño by Villaret (p. 67).”
p. 93. “This islet [Cousins], that I proposed calling Mares Islet (Lanza, 1973) in honor of Mr. Lodovico Mares.”
p. 93. Location of Escollo de Bartolomé is given.
p. 95. Location of Escollo de Punta Bowditch is given.

Carlos Manuel Larrea

p. 79. “… en los mapas de Ortelius de 1589 ya figura el grupo insular con otros nombres: 'Las Encantadas' † que, como hemos dicho, fue probablemente el primero que le dieron los descubridores españoles.”
p. 106. “… denominó entonces 'Archipiélago de Ecuador.' ”
p. 107. “Hernández … dio el nombre de Floreana a las isla Charles; llamó Olmedo a la James y [Vicente] Roca a otra de las islas.”

† There is no known Ortelius map with the islands labeled as “Las Encantadas.”

B. Lévêque

p. 96. Footnote 7 (p. 80) in Lanza 1982 states that Caamaño is named “Jenson by Lévêque.”

Rudolph Lorenz & Trygve Nuggerud

The caption on the back of the first photo gets a few things wrong:

  1. The photo shows the island of Marchena, not Charles/Floreana,
  2. According to a United Press report, the preposterous claim that Germans who reside in Galápagos may demand their annexation by Germany appeared in El Comercio, a newspaper in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The only Germans on Isla Floreana were the Wittmer Family, who wanted nothing to do with Nazi Germany. On Isla Santa Cruz, the Angermeyer brothers had fled Germany and likewise wanted nothing to do with the Nazis.
  3. Colonel Frank Knox (publisher, Chicago Daily News, and World War II Secretary of the Navy), did not make the suggestion attributed to him. He received a letter from Major General David L. Stone, Commanding General of the Panama Department who wrote that the United States should gain control over the islands, as shown in the letter excerpt which follows:
    • “We fully realize that the [Panama] Canal is vulnerable to air attack right now and that we are mighty poorly prepared to defend it, especially against carrier-based air raids from the Pacific, and until we get control of the Galapagos and Cocos Islands, as advanced bases, I can't see any way to cover the seaward approaches to the Canal with necessary aircraft warning stations and tactical operating bases to give our air defenses some depth in that direction.”
  4. Alternate photo caption is seen on some copies of the same photo, reporting discovery of bodies of Lorenz and Nuggerud.

Jean-Baptiste Machuel

The “Les Isles de Gallapagos” map is obviously a copy of Herman Moll's 1699 “The Gallapagos Islands, …” with island names re-written in French. Thus Moll's “Duke of Albemarle Isl.” becomes “Isle du Duc d'Albemarle” and so on. Since the name of the translator/transcriber is unknown, the map is atttributed to the publisher, Jean-Baptiste Machuel.

William H. Macy

Little is known about the author, other than that he was a contributor to Ballou's Monthly Magazine. Given his regular series of features on nautical themes, perhaps we was a relative of John Macy, captain of the whaleship Sukey. Captain Macy mentioned “Patt's [sic] Landing” in a letter quoted by David Porter in his Journal of a Cruise. If William and John were indeed related, perhaps the writer heard the Watkins legend from the captain, or another member of the family. He may also have borrowed from Paul West's Ship's Log: Whaleship Cyrus, in which West describes dealing with Watkins for vegetables.

Alejandro Malaspina

In Ms. 126, p. 219 “Ia. Carlos Lomas, 1°29' S, 84°18' W of Cádiz” [i.e., 90°36'W. Document author unknown, but presumably someone aboard Santa Gertrudis. See Malaspina Expedition for further details.]

Excerpts from Malaspina Expedition are presented here simply to clarify that, contrary to many accounts, Malaspina did not visit Galápagos.

Alexander Mann

Notwithstanding the “Notes on Travel in Peru” in the subtitle, there are only a few pages devoted to that country. The rest of the text is divided between Galápagos and mainland Ecuador, where the author—a Scottish merchant—was a longtime resident of Guayaquil.

Sir Clements Markham

A footnote (p. 136) in Sir Clements' translation of Sarmiento's Historia is repeated here:

* This story of the navigation of Tupac Inca to the islands of Ninachumpi and Avachumpi or Hahua chumpi is told by [Cabello de] Balboa as well as by Sarmiento. They were no doubt two of the Galápagos Islands. Nina chumpi means fire island, and Hahua chumpi outer island. See my introduction to the Voyages of Sarmiento, p. xiii; and Las Islas de Galapagos by Marco Jimenes de la Espada.

Notwithstanding Markham's observation that the islands “ … were no doubt two of the Galápagos Islands,” Sarmiento's own text suggests that they were not. The merchants spoke of islands “where there were many people and much gold,” which certainly rules out Galápagos. It is conceivable that Tupac Inca passed by Galápagos on his voyage, but if he returned with black people, gold and other items, then clearly he visited other locations too. However, Sarmiento's own 1567 discovery of islands 200 or more leagues to the westward might have been Galápagos. If so, he was mistaken in associating them with Tupac Inca's Ninachumpi and Avachumpi.

F. Massertie

The sources for Ducéré's work are the following two manuscript logbooks at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, France:

Several island names are given, some without sufficient information to make a positive identification. For example:

Matthew Fontaine Maury

The following excerpt is from the cited document published in 1861:

Letters from Passed Midshipmen Maury and Godon
To HON. DUTEE J. PEARCE, House of Representatives, Washington.
FREDERICKSBURG, Va., December 26, 1834
DEAR SIR: Your friendly letter, of the 25th inst., lays open before me. It affords me pleasure to give you all the facts within my reach, which may bear upon the subject of the memorial alluded to.
By the testimony of other navigators, and the concurring result of my own astronomical observations, I found many places along the coast mislocated on our charts, which were of the most recent publication, and compiled by the most approved hydrographers.

Extract from my note book.

CALLAO, May, 1832.
. . . “Captain Swain, of the Mercury, and Chase, of the Leda, (whalers,) say that Norfolk Island, Gallapagos group does not exist. The chart places it thirty-four miles from Cholam [sic, Chatham] Isle. They sailed from Cholam Isle in search of it; the day was perfectly clear; could see twenty-five miles around; they did not see Norfolk Island. . . .
Yours, respectfully, &c.,
Passed Midshipman U.S. Navy.

NOTE: The unidentified chart may be the 1808 Aaron Arrowsmith chart which places Norfolk about 34 miles from Chatham, as seen in this detail view. The actual distance, however, is about 52 miles (from the peak of Norfolk/Santa Cruz to Kicker Rock vicinity). Norfolk's 2800-foot peak is visible for some 60 miles, so it is unclear why the captains didn't see it, unless they were just out of range, somewhat east of Kicker Rock. However, the claim that they “could see twenty-five miles around” suggests they were better at whaling than at navigation. To see that distance, they would have had to be at the top of a mast more than 450 feet high. No doubt they were sailing tall ships, but surely not that tall.

Alec McEwen

The author identifies the persons associated with various English names assigned by Cowley, Colnett and others. Although generally informative, there is some confusion over the identities of several islands, as noted here:

See James Burney section for his actual account, and William Hacke 1687 listing for more details on several island names cited above.

Eduard McIntosh & David E. Balfour

A booklet with 14 sketch maps of tourist sites.

Herman Melville

The ten sketches of The Encantadas were sequentially published in Putnam's Monthly Magazine as indicated in the table. Although credited to “Salvator R. Tarnmoor” in the magazine, Melville's authorship was well-known.

Volume III, 1854No.pagesSketches
MarchXV.311-319First – Fourth
AprilXVI.345-355Fifth – Eighth [but labeled Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, Ninth]
MayXVII.460-466Ninth, Tenth [but labeled Tenth, Eleventh]
The mis-labeled sketch numbers appear in brackets in the text on this website.

The x/y pagination given here indicates the pages in the Putnam/Grabhorn editions.

p. 319/33 (Sketch Fourth). “Still south of James's Isle lie Jervis Isle, Duncan Isle, Crossman's Isle, Brattle Isle, Wood's Isle, Chatham Isle, .... But not far from these are rather notable isles-Barrington, Charles's, Norfolk, and Hood's.” (Italics added to show that “Wood's” is not “Hood's.”)
p. 349/55 (Sketch Eighth). The last verse (“Each … dead.”) does not appear in the Putnam edition. It was added when The Encantadas was published as part of Melville's The Piazza Tales.
p. 460/78 (Sketch Ninth). “Southeast of Crossman's Isle lies Hood's Isle, or McCain's Beclouded Isle.” (“Southeast of …” in Putnam edition, but “To Southeast of …” in Grabhorn edition. The position and text description indicate island is actually Santa María. McCain's identity is unknown.
p. 463/89 (Sketch Ninth). Compare Melville's version of Patrick Watkins' “Fatherless Oberlus” letter with the original version in David Porter's Journal. Also compare his account of Watkins' fate with those of Porter and Coulter.

Archibald Menzies

Menzies' Journal entries for January 27 through February 13, 1795 describe the approach of HMS Discovery to Galápagos and its passage southward between Islas Darwin and Wolf, then between Fernandina and Isabela. Menzies makes it clear that only the latter island (Albemarle in his ms.) was actually visited. The ms. is a contemporary copy of the original journal, as indicated by a watermark in the paper dated 1798. [The preceeding and concluding parts of the ms. are held by the British Library (Add MS 32641).]

Hakon Mielche

p. 128. “Mr Möller and Sonny tried to shoot sea-lions on a small island called Jensen Island.”

Herman Moll

Moll's “Middle Part of America” map appears with minor variations in original and reprint editions of Dampier's New Voyage. The variant in the 1999 Hummingbird Press reprint is stated to be from Esquemeling's History of the Buccaneers, but is in fact from Captain Samuel Johnson's The History of the Pyrates, volume II. The author's name is thought to be a pseudonym of Daniel Defoe. The reprint offers no explanation why the map (which lacks Dampier's route) was taken from a book other than Dampier's own New Voyage, and the editor does not respond to inquiries about this.

Alan Moore, Miguel Cifuentes, Tui De Roy
Alan Moore & Tui De Roy (maps)

In “Marine Sites and their Respective Categories” (pp. 110-11, 3rd edition), a numbered list includes the following:

  24: Roca Don Ferdi (Don Ferdi Rock). Buceo con tanque [dive with tank].
  61: Roca Orca, Floreana (Champion). Buceo con tanque.

No further identification is given, and Don Ferdi's last name is unknown. Pending further information, it is assumed here that divers have given the former name to Roca Bainbridge #8. Notwithstanding “(Champion)” in the above listing, the “Sitios de Visita Marinos” map in the book shows Roca Orca to the southeast of Isla Watson (3rd edition only, inside rear cover, #61). Approximate coordinates are 90.254142° W, 1.381758° S.

Gwen Moore

The author's recollections of a 1973 trip from Santa Monica to Isla Baltra in a single-engine plane, in company with four colleagues best described as “socially challenged.” They visit the islands on the Bronzewing, with a captain who is every bit as unpleasant as his passengers.

Howard Moorepark

Moorepark's map shows Albemarle and surrounding islands, together with a sketch of the S. S. Arcturus. James Island is misnamed as Bartholomew Island and Santa Cruz is labeled Santiago. Moorepark's relationship to the ship is uncertain, pending further research. The map was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1926.

Benjamin Morrell, Jr.

p. 125. “Thirteen of these islands … have been named as follows: … Tower's … .”

Gustav Mützel & Karl Jahrmargt

The plates apparently appeared first in the German Brehms Tierleben, with the names of the artist and engraver (left and right, at bottom). In the subsequent English edition, the artist's last name, followed by an illegible word, and the engraver's full name are erased, as may be noted by traces of the erasure. The German “Elefanten schildkröte” (Elephant Tortoise) is replaced by “Giant Tortoises of the Galapagos Islands.” (Hover over magnifying-glass icon to view.) In the engraver's name; X. J. v. K. Jahrmargt, the significance of the first three initials is unknown.

Sir John Narbrough (or Narborough)

For reasons unknown, Sir John's last name was—and still is—frequently spelled “Narborough” despite the fact that he signed himself “Narbrough” (see sample below). To add to the confusion, the title page of An Account of Several Late Voyages & Discoveries … also lists him as “Narborough” even though he is “Narbrough” in his Journal included in that volume.

Perry Newberry

For reasons unknown, the author makes the following preposterous claims about the maps in his book:

p. 6. “One of these bold seamen, Hugh Liborges, made a map of the group, a rough, unfinished drawing.”
p. 7. “The map at page 95 is, in its general outline and main details, based upon late surveys of Charles Island.”

The former is in fact an 1816 revision by James Burney of a 1699 map by Herman Moll. Newberry removed Burney's attribution to Ambrose Cowley, but does not further identify Liborges, nor explain why he credited this imaginary character with creating this well-known map.

The latter appears to be an original creation, apparently by book illustrator F. A. Anderson.

Hezikiah Niles

Editor and Publisher of the Niles Weekly Register, Hezikiah Niles printed the obituary of Lieutenant John Cowan, who had died in a duel with Lieutenant John Gamble on James Island, August 10, 1813. There is a 9-page, 2-column biography of Captain David Porter in the same edition, and it is possible that Niles received the details of the duel from Captain Porter himself. The Supplement to Volume Seven is undated, but since the Volume covers the period September 1814 – March 1815, the Supplement was probably published in March or shortly thereafter.

Thomas Nickerson

Pages 53-60 of Nickerson's ms. describe his visit to Galápagos in October, 1820. Two locations are described:
(p. 55/132) “We gained an anchorage at Hoods Island. … We anchored in five fathoms water. On the northwest part of the island there is a small bay called Stephens Bay. … Hoods Island is in 1 deg:20m south lattitude and 89deg:40m west longitude.”
(p. 58/135) “We now directed our way towards Charles Island, one of the same groupe. … There is an excellent harbour on the southwest side of the island.”

x/y pagination indicates page in manuscript and in 2000 Reprint edition. Assuming the first anchorage was indeed at Hoods Island (the modern Española), Nickerson probably meant Gardner Bay. (Stephens Bay is on the northern side of Isla San Cristóbal.) The “excellent harbour on the southwest side” of Charles Island (Santa María) is probably Post Office Bay, on the northwest side of the island.

Thomas A. Norton

The log of the whaler Hector contains these entries:

From this, it would appear that Breakfast Isle is the modern Isla Rábida. See Island Notes for additional information.

Jorge Ortiz

“Captain Tomás Geraldino served at Callao Naval Dept. as Commanding Office of frigate Leibre. Mazarredo could refer to Admiral José de Mazarredo, Spanish Navy.”

Abraham Ortelius

1570. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (“Theatre of the World”). Ortelius published the first edition of this atlas in 1570. The first plate, Typus Orbis Terrarum, is a world map based on Mercator's Nova et aucta… published the previous year. The Ortelius plate shows two island groups, in a SouthWest/NorthEast orientation, with a single “ye de los Galopegos” legend between them. The upper group is probably the present Isla del Coco, off Costa Rica.

Americae Sive Novi Orbis, Nova Descriptio. This plate in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum shows North and South America and the Galápagos Islands. It was revised from time to time, with the following variations noted:

1570. The SouthWest group is labeled Inf: de los galopegos. while the NorthEast group is Inf: de los galepegos.
1579. The 1570 nomenclature is preserved on this edition.
1587. The SouthWest group retains its Inf: de los galopegos. legend, while the NorthEast group is renamed as Inf: de Cocos.

As far as is known, the dual appearance of the name with slightly different spellings and its subsequent correction on the 1587 edition has not been noted in the literature.

1584. Peruviae Auriferae Regionis Typus. This plate was added to the Atlas in 1584 [not 1574, as cited by von Hagen, Slevin and others.] It shows Isolas de Galapagos as one large island and two small satellite islands.

Some sources (von Hagen, Slevin and others) cite Ortelius as the first to put the legend Galápagos on a map, even though the Mercator Nova et aucta . . . map (the celebrated “Mercator Projection” of 1569) predates it by one year.

An undated vellum sea chart from an anonymous source shows “ys. de Galapagos” in a style that suggests it may be even earlier than Mercator, but this possibility has not been verified.

Authority for Ortelius chronology is van den Broecke, Ortelius Atlas Maps: An Illustrated Guide.

Lillian Otterman

On most if not all copies of the first (1983) edition, a sticker with “National Literary Guild, Inc.” has been pasted over “Great Western Publishing Co.” on the title page, copyright page, and rear cover. The Library of Congress Online Catalog indicates the latter is the actual publisher. This edition lacks an index and has fewer illustrations than (and some of which are different from) the 1993 edition. The latter edition has a poorly-done index.

The author's description of yacht visits during the three decades ending in 1964 is an interesting, though often confused and inaccurate, resource for researchers interested in this time period. Unfortunately, her coverage of the three centuries before that repeats most errors found elsewhere, and introduces several new ones, such as the following (p. x/y = 1983/1993 pagination):

p. 300/251: “The island of Floreana had acquired a new name—People Eater Island… No doubt Sarah [ie, Sarah Saydee] Reiser's disappearance in 1964 served as a reminder of the island's sinister past.”

Presumably, this is the author's own invention; there is no known source for a People Eater Island other than in her own books. Elsewhere though, Mrs. Otterman is quite perceptive, as in her assessment of Richard Maury's The Saga of “Cimba,” where she catches this author's inaccurate descriptions of Heinz and Harry Wittmer's hair styles, and most other errors. As she puts it, Maury “… was endowed with either a poor memory or a vivid imagination… .”

Daniel Palacios

The digital bathymetry data set combines all available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years with high resolution marine gravity information provided by the Geosat, ERS-1/2, and Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeters. It is available on-line from the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

The sea-floor topography is presented in two- and three-dimensional views to enhance different aspects of the submarine relief. In the two-dimensional map, depth is represented in color, and the 100-m and 400-m isobaths are drawn as black and red contours, respectively. In the three-dimensional map, the vertical scale (depth) has been greatly exaggerated to illustrate the very steep topography along the western and southern margins of the archipelago, and the isolated nature of several peaks flanking the main group of islands along its northern margin. These peaks represent the tips of submarine volcanos, some of which have emerged to become the islands we presently know as Darwin, Wolf, Pinta, Marchena and Genovesa. Also evident is the submarine canyon between the islands of Isabela and Santiago, oriented on a NW-SE direction. Notice that the horizontal scale is about 780 km, while the vertical scale is just under 4,000 m. The maps were generated with Matlab v. 5.3.—© 2001, Daniel Palacios.

R. Pazmiño

After the murder of Manuel J. Cobos on Isla San Cristóbal, workers on his plantation seized the ship Josefina Cobos, renamed it Libertad, and sailed for the mainland, arriving at Cabo Manglares, Colombia. Here, the 78 men and 8 women were detained and then sent to Guayaquil on the British ship Ecuador. A postcard with R. Pazmiño's February 19, 1904 photo shows the workers on a Guayaquil dock. See Chapter 10 of Jacob Lundh's Galápagos: A Brief History for further details.

Carlo Pellegrini

After moving to England in 1864, the Italian caricaturist published several hundred cartoons in Vanity Fair, including the four works listed here:

SubjectSeriesDate of Issue Issue Number
Samuel WilberforceStatesmen No. 25 July 24, 1869No. 98
Thomas Huxley Men of the Day No. 19Jan. 28, 1871No. 117
Charles DarwinMen of the Day No. 33Sep. 30, 1871No. 152
Richard OwenMen of the Day No. 57Mar. 1, 1873No. 226

Cyrus S. Perkins

The enclosed notes suggest Perkins sent these letters to himself, perhaps as a test of the postal service between Galápagos and the United States. The Chatham date may be an error though; The Hancock Expedition was at Barrington (Isla Santa Fe) on January 26, and at Chatham (San Cristóbal) the following day.

Abel du Petit-Thouars

p. 317. “L'ile Dower est située par 0°19'30'' … .”

Charles-Eugène Perron

[From the Appleton edition, p. 267]: “Subjoined is a table of the various islands, arranged in order of size, and with their respective English and Spanish names.” Below: The Galápagos Archipelego map (Fig. 103) is unique in that it includes island names {in braces} seen on the 1794 Cruz Doblado chart, but not elsewhere. Errors are in brackets, italics indicates name on map but not in original table.

Albemarle; Isabella [sic, Isabela].
Indefatigable; [Infatiguable; Chalvez], {Tierra de Valdez};
    Duke of Norfolk, Santa Cruz; [Santiago].
Narborough; Fernandina.
James; Santiago; San Salvador; {Tierra de Gil}.
Chatham; Grande; San Cristobal.
Charles; Mascarin; Floreana; Santa Maria.
Hood; Española.
Bindloe; Marchena; {Torres}.
Abingdon; Pinta; {Geraldino}.
Tower; Genovesa.
Culpeper; [Jervis, Rabida]; {Guerra}.
Wenman; Nuñez; Gasna [sic, {Nuñez Gaona}].
Barrington; Santa Fe.
Duncan; Pinzon.
Islote Redondo; Roca Redonda.

Since both Galápagos maps show the 1892 official names (Isabela, Fernandina, etc.), it is clear that both editions were published in 1893 or later. The colored map in the French edition was apparently derived from the English-language edition.

Nathaniel Philbrick

Pages 69-76 describe the visit of the whaleship Essex to Galápagos in October, 1820, largely based on the ms. of Thomas Nickerson.

Sherwood Picking

Captain Sherwood Picking, U. S. Navy, visited Galápagos in April, 1941 on the submarine S-44, in company with three other submarines and the submarine rescue ship USS Mallard. With the cooperation of the Navy, Waldo Lasalle Schmitt, from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, was permitted to accompany the expedition in order to investigate potential sites for a Smithsonian-supported research station. Since the vessels needed to cross the Equator on their voyage from the Canal Zone, the Radiogram reproduced here was inevitable. Scholars have not yet ascertained the true location of the Island of Foo, nor its Spanish name, if there is one.

Picking's April 24 letter describes his unsuccessful attempt to locate the grave site of Lieutenant John S. Cowan, who was killed in a duel on James Island (Isla San Salvador) with Lieutenant John Marshall Gamble on August 12, 1813. Captain David Porter gives a brief report of the duel, but offers no details of its cause and does not identify Cowan's assailant.

Gifford Pinchot & Russell Lyons

p. 111-12. While at Chatham Island (Isla San Cristóbal), the author visited the village of Progreso. “Here also was Señor Rogerio Alvarado, representative of the owners of the island, and his assistant, Señor Cobos [son of the slain Manuel J. Cobos], both of whom spoke little English but excellent and idiomatic French. Alvarado was manager of the sugar mill and of numerous plantations of coffee, cane, and fruit.”

Note: The Galápagos chart by Russell Lyons (facing p. 98) may be the first to show Darwin Bay at Tower Island with some accuracy.

David Porter

The x/y pagination given here indicates:
x/  Porter's 1822 edition, with a link to the location of the citation within that edition.
/y  The 1986 Naval Institute Press edition, which reprints the complete text from Porter's 1815 and 1822 editions.

p. 129/153. “I have been induced to call [it] Rock Dismal.”
p. 158/185. “... the Devil's Rock, or Rock Dismal, bearing E.N.E.”
p. 165/192. “He [Chaplain Adams] highly complimented me, by giving it the name of Porter's Island.”
p. 203/232. “... no less than four craters in operation on that island [Narborough]” (See p. xxxvi/587 below).
p. 206/235. “We ... discovered Wenam's [sic] Island.”
p. 230/261. “I now made sail [from Santa María] for Chatham island, running along to windward of Barrington island … . Towards sunset, the man on the look-out cried out, a sail to the N. W.! All sail was made in chase, but in a short time we discovered from the mast-head, by our glasses, that it was one of two rocks that lie off the north † end of Porter's island, which we have called Bainbridge's Rocks.”
p. 232/264. “This bay I called Rodgers' Bay, and the island forming it Rodgers' Island, in honour of commodore Rodgers.”
p. xxxvi/587. “The only volcanoes seen in a state of activity were, four on Marlborough [sic, see p. 203/232 above], one on Albemarle, and one on Charles' Island.”‡

† The “north” is probably a typo. According to Porter's own written description and map, the two rocks lie off the east end of Porter's Island—that is, isla Santa Cruz. They are now known as Gordon Rocks, while Bainbridge Rocks has been applied to a similar group off Isla San Salvador.

‡ This excerpt is taken from Porter's Preface to the 2nd (1822) edition. The Preface appears as an Appendix (pp. 568 - 628) in the Naval Institute 1986 reprint edition, where Marlborough is misspelled as Malborough. In any case, although the name is probably a mis-spelled Narborough, that island has only a single volcano, and Porter was no doubt referring to Albemarle (Isla Isabela).

Illustrations in Porter Editions
Title or Description181518221823
Volume I
David Porter, Esq. (Edwin)Title Page  
Capt. David Porter of the U.S. Navy (Prudhomme) Title Page
Table of Locations (foldout table)22
Gallapagos Islands (foldout map)154
Gallapagos Turtle (sic, Tortoise)214
Island profile sketches (Edm. Blunt)2464
Island profile sketches (Chaplain Adams)264  
Gallapagos Islands (Neele & Son) 35
Volume II
Washington Islands foldout map10 
Madisonville in Massachusetts Bay1815110
Mouina, Chief Warrior of the Tayehs26  
War Club, other items3632
Drum of the Islanders 44
Bread Fruit58 
Woman of Nooaheevah66
War Canoe76
Massachusetts Bay82
Taawattaa the Priest114
Typee God (doll)118
Stilts of the Islanders 122
The Victory154166
Capture of the Essex (same as “The Victory” above) 121

Ingenio “Progreso”

In 1883, the Governor of Guayas Province authorized Rogerio Alvarado to introduce currency to the Galápagos Islands. The following year, the first coins were countermarked with the intertwined initials “R A” or simply “R” for unique circulation within the Archipelago. The countermark was applied to coins from 1884 to 1916, the year in which Alvarado's authorization was revoked.
Source (en español): Diego Bolaños P. Rogelio Alvarado RA: El Resello de las Islas Galápagos.

The author's claims about Alvarado are unsubstantiated, and unlikely. Little is known about him, except that he functioned as a Director of Collections. But in 1883, he was only 11 years old. Later on (ca. 1910), he married Josefina, daughter of Manuel J. Cobos, and they managed the Cobos family business on Isla San Cristóbal after the murder of Josefina's father. Alvarado is mentioned several times in Stein Hoff's Drømmen om Galapagos, and also in Gifford Pinchot's To the South Seas. His first name is sometimes spelled “Rogelio” but it appears as “Rogerio” on his tomb in the Cobos Family gravesite in Guayaquil.

NOTE: There is also the possibility that the initials are those of Arturo (or Arthur) M. Reed, whose signature appears on undated scrip issued at the Cobos enterprise on Chatham (isla San Cristóbal). There is also a single “R” counter-stamp on some coins, which further suggests it identifies Reed. Nothing is known of him, pending further research.

G. W. Prothero

p. 25 Appendix II: shows the following chart, which is sorted here according to Cowley's list:

Names Given To … Individual Islands at Different Times
Cowley's List Old Spanish Other Stray Later Torres & Vacaro Ecuadorian
Abington         Pinta
Albemarle Santa Isabel Santa Gertrudiz Isabela
Barrington †     Santa Fé
Bindloe Diablo Quitasueño? Marchena
Brattle     La Tortuga  
Chatham † Santa María de la Aguada Grande   San Cristóbal
Crossman Tabaco    
Culpepper   los dos Hermanos (1) Guerra
Duncan †     Pinzón
Hood † Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza Española
Indefatigable ‡ Santiago Norfolk, or Porter's Isle Chálvez, or San Clemente Valdez Santa Cruz
James San Bernabe Carenero Olmedo Gil San Salvador
Jervis †         Rabida
King Charles Mascarin San Marcos Floreana Sta. María
Narborough       Fernandina
Tower ‡ Salud Eures Quitasueño? Quitasueño? Genovesa
Wenman   los dos Hermanos (2)   Núñez Gaona  
† ‡ These names mis-attributed to Cowley. Actually originated by Colnett() and unknown().

Quasar Nautica

p. 15. Typesetting error lists Guy Toucket [sic, Guy Fawkes] Islet as a diving/snorkeling site.

Ernest G. Reimer

A slightly edited version of Reimer's story was published as “A Most Unusual Social Visit” in Robert Reiss's Doctor Yank.

Robert Reiss (1914-2003)

Chaper VIII describes Dr. Reiss's tour of duty in Galápagos as an Army dentist. The chapter includes Walter Finsen's “Debunking the Baroness.” and Ernest G. Reimer's “A Most Unusual Social Visit.”

Paulette E. de Rendón

The author and her husband, the well-known painter Manuel Rendón Seminario, spent a few months in Galápagos, along with “un amigo y sus tres hijos” who remain unidentified. The author reports that they departed Guayaquil on 18 January (p. 18), but does not state the year. However, on arrival at San Cristóbal, Captain Hancock of the Velero III paid a visit (p. 25). The Hancock party were there in January, 1938, thus giving us the year of the author's visit. Sra. de Rendón visited the Wittmers and noted:

“Una bandera alemana tricolor estaba colgada en una pared, y en otra un retrato de Hitler, debajo del cual brillaba una ramita de pino en metal dorado.”

A tricolor German flag was hanging on a wall, and on another a portrait of Hitler, below which shone a golden sprig of pine.§

§ The author's account indirectly supports the view that the portrait was a gift of Count Felix von Luckner, who visited the Wittmers in 1937, as noted by Frances Conway in her The Enchanted Islands.

The Rendóns spent some time on Isla Floreana, and apparently Frau Wittmer filled her in on the details of previous years, including her first encounter with Dore Strauch, who asked Margret “What do you think of Nietzche?” (p. 39). In her own book, Margret mentions (p. 135) “The ship that came at the end of January” but says nothing about meeting the Rendóns.

Mateo Ricci

Ricci was an Italian Jesuit priest living in China, who created a world map at the request of the emperor. Slevin's “History” (p 18) states that the 1602 map shows:

“…a group of islands in the approximate position of the Galápagos, though no name is given them.”

However, the islands that may be Galápagos are not seen on Ricci's original map, but do appear on a Japenese copy made ca. 1604.

Basil Ringrose

Basil Ringrose arrived in England on March 26, 1682 and departed again on October 1, 1683. Therefore, his Waggoner must have been created within this period. The crude Galápagos chart on the last page showing Cowley's King James Isle—so named by Cowley in December, 1685, on learning of the death of Charles II—must have been added to the volume after Cowley's own return to England on October 12, 1686.

Friedrich Ritter

Dr. Ritter auf der Galapagosinsel is cited by John Treherne in his The Galapagos Affair bibliography, but no details are given. In A Modern Sea Beggar, Temple Utley makes a passing reference to the publication of private letters by Ritter and Dore Strauch that “… had been hastily collected together into a book.” This may be the book cited by Treherne, but a copy has not yet been located.

On the title page of Als Robinson auf Galapagos, a “†” symbol after the author's name indicates the book was published posthumously. And in fact the book concludes with a description of his death. The ms. may have been written from Ritter's notes by Dore Strauch after she returned to Germany. However, Treherne (p. 197) states that Ritter's nephew wrote that “The net proceeds from the book will go to the lawful heirs of Dr. Ritter, his wife and sister, after it was found impossible to get the assistance of Frau Strauch-Koerwin.” Treherne does not identify his source, nor does he explain how Ritter's notes passed from Dore Strauch to someone else, without her assistance. The Floreana map on p. 255 of the German edition does not appear in the Dutch edition. The property called “Friedo” in the Atlantic Monthly articles (Ritter 1931) and in Satan Came to Eden (Strauch 1935) is here identified as “Frido.” (Further details pending translation into English.)

William Albert Robinson

1936   Voyage to Galápagos.
p. 218. “At the entrance [to Pelican Lagoon] lay a tiny island. … We named it Iguana Tree Island.”
p. 228. “We cornered [some wild dogs] one day on Iguana Tree Island where they often swam to hunt iguanas.”

1957   To the Great Southern Sea.
p. 168. “… the island I had named Big Penguin Island in 1934.” (probably one of Islotes Marielas)

Woodes Rogers

Pagination is from 1712/1928 editions:
p. 207/151. “… under sail by a remarkable Rock.”
p. 208/152. “… to bear away for the Rendevouz [sic, Rendezvous] Rock.”
Rogers' opinion of Capt. [Edward] Davis appears at bottom of Emanuel Bowen's chart.
In describing the Galápagos land turtle, Rogers writes: “The Spaniards tell us they know of none elsewhere in these Seas.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt

The Third Presidential Cruise is a 75-page booklet printed on board the cruiser on the occasion of President Roosevelt's “Fishing Expedition” to the Galápagos Islands and Isla Coco on the Houston. Much is devoted to the shenanigans of crossing the line, along with a few pages about the Ritters, Baroness, the Wittmer family, and the search for Lt. Cowan's grave. Although the Houston organized a search (unsuccessful) of Isla San Salvador, the booklet mistakenly notes that “ … Seymour Island is perhaps best known as the burial place of Lieutenant John S. Cowan.”

Walter Rothschild & Ernst Hartert

The Galápagos diaries of Charles Miller Harris and F. P. Drowne are included within the Rothschild & Hartert paper. Entries in both diaries about feral animals are cited in Barbara West's Human Introduction of Animals table.

Linley Sambourne

The cartoons of Linley Sambourne (1844-1910) were featured in Punch magazine for more than forty years, and several are reproduced here.

Date (1881)PageTitleSubject
March 19130Punch's Fancy Portraits, No. 23 Professor Huxley
October 22190Punch's Fancy Portraits, No. 54 Charles Robert Darwin
December 6Punch's Almanack for 1882 Man is But a Worm

General Kiyokatsu Sato

This excerpt describes Japanese plans for the destruction of the Panama Canal.

“The struggle for Hawaii thus constitutes the first stage of a Japanese-American war. On the assumption that Hawaii was captured by our navy, the Japanese forces would undertake, as the next step, the task of destroying the Panama Canal and the main squadron of America.

“If the Japanese Navy succeeded in crushing the American fleet in the Pacific, landing on the Pacific coast of America would become easy.

“At the same time the Panama Canal must be destroyed, as the maintenance of traffic through it would facilitate supplies to the American Navy.

“Attacks should be made on the canal by an effective air fleet. The destruction of the canal and the American fleet would literally be half the battle. This would end the second period of the war.”

Robert Sayer

Note that Sayer's 1775 map shows “Albemarle or Isabel I.” on the modern Isla Isabela. Sayer's usage is more than 100 years before the official 1892 assignment of that name, and his source is unknown. See also Laurie & Whittle's 1794 map for another early appearance of Isabella.

J. F. Schimpff

Schimpff's account is an odd mix of fact and fiction. An accompanying photograph shows Post Office Bay as a “Palm-Fringed Tropical Beach” and an Editor's note in the story states that Dr. Ritter and Dore Strauch returned to Germany. Both items imply that the story is a fabrication based loosely on actual events. A passing reference in Margret Wittmer's “What Happened on Galápagos?” indicates the author lived on the island before the arrival of the Wittmer family. “Herr Schimff [sic] is also mentioned in Temple Utley's A Modern Sea Beggar. He is identified as “Federico Smit” in an Ecuadorian document accompanying Utley's “Statement … regarding the death of Captain Bruun.”

The American Museum of Natural History Botany/Historical Collections has a catalog entry for a “Schimpff, H. J. F. ” and the New York Botanical Garden lists a “Heinrich J. F. Schimpff.” Both listings cite Ecuador. Given the name and country, it is presumed this is the “J. F. Schimpff” cited as author of the newspaper feature, and that his full name is Heinrich J. Frederick Schimpff. The “J.” remains a mystery.

Johannes Schöner

The Monumenta Cartographica editor (Dr. F. C. Wieder, Librarian of the University of Leiden) has interpreted a “PERISCH” legend on one of the globe gores as follows:

“If this word is divided into three parts, we get the meaning of it: PER I SCH, the I indicating Joannes, the SCH Schöner, i. e. per I. Schöner— by Johannes Schöner.”

However, the legend is in fact “PERISCII”—a word to describe “Those who live within a polar circle, whose shadows, during some summer days, will move entirely round, falling toward every point of the compass.” (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary). The word appears directly below the Antarctic circle on the globe gore. In The Mapping of the World, editor R. A. Skelton writes:

“The craftsman-artist could well be from the school of Schöner, … The gores are tentatively dated c. 1535; they could be earlier but are unlikely to be as early as 1523-24 as stated by Wieder.”

Despite the proximity to the mainland, the presence of four islands under the “Insuls Gemmarum” legend suggests this is not the single island now known as Isla de Plata. The similarity of gemmarum (“of gems”) and de Plata (“of plate”) is coincidental, since the latter—according to a legend possibly started by William Dampier [q. v.]—commemorates Sir Francis Drake's use of the island a half century after the globe gores were produced. There is no hard evidence to indicate the island cluster (shown colored) represents the Galápagos Islands, but there are no other likely candidates in the same general area.

John Scouler

Dr. John Scouler was ship's surgeon on the 1824-25 voyage of the William & Ann from England to the Columbia River. His account of his visit to James Island (see text on Google Earth view) is the only known source to give the approximate location of the gravesite of Lt. John Cowan, U. S. frigate Essex. Scouler's transcription of the text on a plaque at the grave is slightly different from that reported earlier by David Porter. It is suspected that Scouler's transcription is the more accurate, as Porter probably wrote his from memory upon his return to the United States.

David Porter, 1815 John Scouler, 1826
Sacred to the memory OF LIEUT. JOHN S. COWAN, of the U.S. Frigate Essex, Who died here anno 1813, Aged 21 Years. His loss is ever to be regretted by his country; And mourned by his friends and brother officers. “Sacred to the memory of John Cowan, lieutenant of the U. S. frigate Essex, who died here September 1813. His memory is lamented by his friends and country, and honoured by his brother officers.”

Joseph Richard Slevin

1955. Charting the “Enchanted Isles.”
p. 103. “ … Sulivan Bay is named in honor of Lieut. [Bartholomew] James Sulivan of HMS Beagle.” Since Slevin knew that the bay was named after Lt. Sulivan, it's puzzling that he thought the island in the bay (the present Bartolomé) was named after a Lt. James Ewen Bartholomew. See table which follows.

1959. The Galápagos Islands. A History …
p. 6. “...a drawing made by G. W. P. Edwardes of HMS Daphne ... during a visit of that vessel to the Galápagos in 1836.”
p. 18. “The islands appear on Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published at Antwerp in 1570, as ‘Insulae de los Galopegos,’ and in his Peruviae Auriferae Regionis Typus, of 1574 they are named ‘Isolas de Galápagos’ … .” The source of this information may be an inaccurate account by Von Hagen, 1949.
p. 38. “Isle de Saute, and the Isle Mascarin are no doubt Charles [i.e., Santa María] and Hood.”

Chart on pp. 104-105 (1955) and 25-26 (1959) lists the following entries:

Slevin's List of Island Names *
English Named after Spanish (1955) Other names (1959)
Abingdon Earl of Abingdon Pinta Pinta, Geraldino
Albermarle [sic] George Monk, Duke of Albemarle Isabela Isabela, Santa Gertrudis
[Baltra (South Seymour)]  
Barrington Admiral [the Honorable] Samuel Barrington, R.N. Santa Fé Santa Fé
Bartholomew Lt. David Ewen Bartholomew, R.N.† Bartolomé Bartolomé
Bindloe Captain John Bindloe Marchena Marchena, Torres
Brattle Nicholas Brattle Tortuga Tortuga
Caldwell Admiral Caldwell, R.N.  
Champion Alexander Champion, whaler
Charles King Charles II Santa María, Floreana Santa María, Floreana
Chatham William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham San Cristóbal San Cristóbal, Dassigney, Grande
Cowley Ambrose Cowley, buccaneer  
Crossman Richard Crossman   Los Hermanos
Culpepper Lord Culpepper Darwin, Guerra
Daphne HMS Daphne  
Duncan Admiral Viscount Duncan, R.N. Pinzón Pinzón, Dean
Eden   Edén  
Enderby Samuel Enderby, whaler  
Gardner (near Charles) {Lord Gardner}
Gardner (near Hood)  
Guy Fawkes [Guy Fawkes,] The English conspirator
Hood Admiral Viscount Samuel Hood, [R. N.] {N.R.} Española Española
Indefatigable [HMS Indefatigable] {HMS Indefatigable} Santa Cruz, Chávez Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Chavez, Norfolk, Porter, San Clemente, Valdéz
James King James II San Salvador, Santiago San Salvador, Gil, Olmedo, Santiago, York
Jervis Admiral John Jervis, [Admiral of the Fleet, R. N.] Rábida Rabida
Nameless   Sin Nombre Isla Sin Nombre, Bewel Rock ††
Narborough Admiral Sir John Narborough Fernandina Fernandina, Plata
{North Seymour}     Seymour
[Seymour (North Seymour)]
{South Seymour} Baltra
Tower Genovesa Genovesa, Ewres
Wenman [Lord Wenman] {Lord Wainman} Wolf, Gasna ‡, Genovesa Ewres §, Nuñez

* Original Editor's Note (1959, p. 26): “The present official names are printed in boldface type.” Minor revisions made here to put other names in alphabetical order. A Link indicates a name or association that originated in Slevin's list.
[name] appears in 1955 chart only.
{name} appears in 1959 chart only.

† Lt. Bartholomew (d. 1821) commanded HMS Erebus during the 1812 bombardment of Fort McHenry. There is no known evidence of an association with Galápagos, and this attribution is assumed to be in error. A British Admiralty chart source (after FitzRoy) is preferred.

†† The source of Slevin's “Bewel Rock” may be FitzRoy 1844.

‡ Probable source for both is a misspelled Núñez Gaona, derived from chart by Cruz Doblado 1794.

§ Misplaced entry cites Genovesa Ewres as one name, here mislinked to Wolf.

Slevin's account of the Cowley and Davies [sic, Davis] diaries

Slevin's 1959 paper was edited and published posthumously, and an Editor's footnote (p. 29, #4), advises that “… the author left only tentative transcriptions of those portions of these diaries which he wished to quote. … It has been impossible to check … his numerous transcriptions against the original manuscripts.” These circumstances may explain the following errata.

  • pp. 29-34: Excerpts from the Journal of Ambrose Cowley
    These excerpts (including Figures 10-12) are in fact taken from Sloane Ms. 3236—the journal of William Dampier. A British Library identification tag with this Ms. number is visible in Figures 10 and 12.
  • pp. 34-37: Excerpts from the Journal of Edward Davies
    These excerpts (including Figure 13) are from Sloane Ms. 54—the journal of William Ambrosia Cowley. A footnote (p. 34, #6) states that “Ambrose Cowley is followed in the spelling of Davies though it is commonly found Davis in the literature.” The Davies spelling is actually that found in the above-cited Dampier ms.

Thomas W. Smith

See Charles Haskins Townsend for Smith's reference to “Woods' [Hoods] Island.”

Heidi Snell & Paul A. Stone, Howard L. Snell

p. 20 (1995) & p. 622 (1996). The cited island names are “… commonly applied by the staff of the Charles Darwin Research Station, ourselves, or other residents of Galápagos.” Those names with no known prior source are listed in the table which follows. Latitude and Longitude are taken from the Snell paper.

Island Name Reference * Latitude Longitude
Arco, Islote el E1° 39' 30'' N91° 59' 2'' W
Ayora, Islote 901° 16' 16'' S90° 21' 2'' W
Ballena, Roca 850° 56' 44'' S89° 35' 22'' W
Bayas Grande, Pequeña 86,96 1° 13' 27'' S90° 26' 27'' W
Bucanero,Caleta † O 0° 9' 55'' S90° 49' 35'' W
Camino del Turismo I0° 58' 11'' S90° 57' 31'' W
Canal Sur, Islote A0° 28' 54'' S90° 17' 26'' W
Cuevas Este, Oeste, las 101,100 1° 15' 36'' S90° 21' 37'' W
Dumb, Islote 950° 35' 22'' S90° 41' 0'' W
Faro, Islote G0° 57' 47'' S90° 57' 44'' W
Fondeadero, Islote H0° 57' 49'' S90° 37' 39'' W
Gardner por Española, Isla 141° 20' 39.7'' S89° 38' 49.8'' W
Gardner por Floreana, Isla 151° 19' 52'' S90° 17' 20'' W
Lobería, La 870° 57' 37'' S90° 55' 36'' W
Logie, Islote § 920° 15' 8'' S90° 34' 37'' W
Mao, Islote 910° 9' 15'' S90° 48' 8'' W
Muelle, Islote K 0° 57' 54'' S90° 57' 25'' W
Noroeste de Santa Fe 1020° 48' 18.3'' S90° 5' 13.6'' W
Norte de Wolf L1° 23' 30'' N91° 49' 2'' W
Oeste, Islote 241° 20' 48.5'' S89° 39' 42.2'' W
Onan, Islote 940° 35' 47'' S90° 39' 10.5'' W
Pitt, Islote (nearshore) B0° 41' 55'' S89° 15' 5'' W
Pitt, Islote (offshore) 660° 42' 14.3'' S89° 14' 54.3'' W
Rata, Roca 930° 31' 16.6'' S90° 29' 6.2'' W
Tiburón Norte, caleta 740° 31' 10.6'' S90° 28' 35.2'' W
Tiburón Sur, caleta 750° 31' 13.9'' S90° 28' 35.0'' W
Tintorera, Islote † ‡ I0° 58' 11'' S90° 57' 31'' W
Torre, Islote el F1° 39' 30'' N92° 0' 40'' W
Tortuga Oeste, Islote M1° 1' 36'' S90° 52' 46'' W
el Trompo P1° 24' 22'' S89° 38' 38'' W
Ventana, la 891° 21' 45'' N91° 49' 30'' W
Villamil Sureste J0° 58' 22'' S90° 57' 12'' W
* Cross-reference to Map Code in Figure 1 chart & Table 1.
† These names appear for the first time in revised ms. published in Journal of Biogeography, 1996.
‡ Camino del Turismo is replaced by Tintorera in Journal of Biogeography, 1996.
§ Islote Logie named by Gayle Davis and Laura Chellis, in honor of the logistical gremlins that so often bedevil Galápagos scientists (and possibly, those who record island names).

M. M. Staples

In 1875, the newly-appointed U. S. Minister to Ecuador, Thomas Biddle, arrived in Guayaquil. Before continuing to Quito to assume his post, he contracted yellow fever and died. The position of Minister remained vacant until 1892, and during this interval matters were handled by the American Legation in Lima, Peru. Accordingly, Mr. Staples wrote to the U. S. Minister in Peru, Stephen A. Hurlbut, to protest the theft of the vessel Laura by “Mr. Cobos”—presumably Manuel J. Cobos. An embossed seal (“Republica del Ecuador”) is stamped into the upper left-hand corner of the letter. Since the letter was from an American citizen in Guayaquil to an American diplomat in Peru, it is unclear when (or why) this seal was added. Hurlbut died in Lima a few months later (27 March 1882), and perhaps the letter was forwarded to authorities in Ecuador after his death, and stamped there when received. The eventual resolution (if any) of this incident has not yet been determined.

David W. Steadman and Steven Zousmer

p. 202. Appendix 1 contains the following names:

English and Spanish Names of the Galápagos Islands
Italicized names are those most commonly used in the Galápagos today. (Modified from Slevin, 1959: 25-26.)
English NamesSpanish Names
AbingdonPinta, Geraldino
AlbemarleIsabela, Santa Gertrudis
BarringtonSanta Fé
BindloeMarchena, Torres
CharlesFloreana, Santa María
Chatham, DassigneySan Cristóbal, Grande
CrossmanLos Hermanos
Culpepper, DarwinGuerra
Daphne Major 
Daphne Minor
Duncan, DeanPinzón
Guy Fawkes 
Indefatigable, Norfolk, PorterSanta Cruz, Bolivia, Valdez, Chavez, San Clemente
James, YorkSantiago, San Salvador, Gil, Olmedo
Nameless, Bewel RockSin Nombre
NarboroughFernandina, Plata
Plaza, NorthPlaza Norte
Plaza, SouthPlaza Sur
Seymour, NorthSeymour Norte, Seymour
Seymour, SouthBaltra
Tower, EwresGenovesa
Wenman, WolfNuñez, Gasna, Genovesa Ewres †
† See notes at bottom of Slevin table for corrections to these names.

Dore Strauch †

The following minor variations are noted between the 1935 and 1936 editions:
YearSpineTitle Page
1935 SATAN






1936 SATAN
As told by
Dore Strauch
The Story of the
as told by
Dore Strauch to
Walter Brockmann

† Dore is presumed to be the correct spelling, as seen in the 1936 edition and also within the text of Als Robinson Auf Galapagos (Ritter) and Floreana Adventure (Wittmer).

Frank J. Sulloway

The track of HMS Beagle on the map is based on the track seen on a collection of six 1837 British Admiralty charts. However, the author's map shows the track only for the time when Darwin was onboard the ship. He remained on James Island while the Beagle made a return trip to Chatham Island and eventually back to James to pick up Darwin and the others who remained with him.

John Tee-Van

Though given photographic credit on Beebe's title page, the initials “T. V.” on the map indicate this is also his work.

Pascoe Thomas

Appendix, pp. 25-36. “A Copy of a Spanish Manuscript, of the Latitudes and Longitudes of all the most noted Places in the South-Seas. Corrected, from the latest Observations, by Manuel Monz. Prieto, Professor of Arts in Peru. The longitude reckoned from the Meridian of London.”

Although Thomas does not identify the original source, he was aboard the Centurion, Commodore George Anson, when it captured the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de Cobadonga [sic, Covadonga] on 20 June, 1743 (Thomas, pp. 280-292). It is assumed here that this is the source of the Spanish ms., and given its origin, longitudes may have originally been stated from Madrid (3° 41' W [decimal -3.683333]). Thomas offers no explanation of how Professor Prieto became involved. Perhaps there was a note on the ms., or perhaps he was commissioned to make the corrections afterwards.

APPENDIX (pp. 30-31)
Names of Places LatitudeLongitude
The Island[s] of Gallepegos D  MD  M
The Island of Esperansa South01 2087 09
The Island of St. Maria de la Aquado South 01 1089 24
The Island of Quieta Suenas South § 00 5087 49
The Island of Jesus, Maria, and Joseph under the Line [ 0° ]88 09
The Island of St. Margarita under the Line 89 43
The Island of St. Marcos North00 1888 59
The Island of St. Clara North 00 0887 24
Los dos veros Ermanas [sic §§] North 01 4588 42

Google Earth 3d view of islands cited above.

  • red bullet: island coordinates from above table
  • green bullet: corrected position; modern name (in parentheses)
  • ? bullet: modern island uncertain

§ Given that Quieta Suenas is thought to be the modern Isla Genovesa, possibly this latitude should be North, not South as seen in the ms. The yellow line in the Google Earth view is drawn between this location and Isla Genovesa.

§§ Since the 1745 publication date predates all other known citations of “Hermanas” and “Hermanos,” it is uncertain which of the following corrections is appropriate.

Las dos veros Hermanasthe two true sisters
Los dos veros Hermanosthe two true brothers

Charles Haskins Townsend

The author's work contains excerpts from whaling books and ships' logs, two of which cite the island names listed here.

SourcePage (in Townsend)Excerpt
Smith's 1844 “Narrative” 91 “After this we proceeded to Woods' [Hoods] Island, and came to anchor in a suitable harbor.”
log of ship Hector, Thomas A. Norton, master 108 (1835) June 3—“steering in for Breakfast Isle at 2 PM let go anchor in 18 fathoms, … At 4 AM lowered 3 Boats and landed at James Isle to procure turrapin.”
June 4—“At Breakfast Isle … at 6 PM Boats Come off with 34 Turapin [sic].”
[NOTE: FitzRoy citation associates Breakfast Island with the present Isla Beagle.]

Ian Thornton

Table 1 (p. 10) mistakenly associates Daphne Major with Mosquera, identifies both Gardner Islets as Jardinero (gardener), and lists Nuñez & Gasna as separate names for Wenman.

U. S. Army Air Forces

Was it the Air Corps or Army Air Forces in WWII?

The Air Corps became a branch of the U. S. Army in 1926, and the Army Air Forces came into being on June 20, 1941. During WWII, all elements of Army aviation were merged into the Army Air Forces. Congress established the United States Air Force as a separate entity in 1947, and of course this is the name that is still in use today. But in any coverage of Army aviation in WW II, the most appropriate and inclusive identification is Army Air Forces. Accordingly, that designation is used here, despite some overlap in documents published in 1947 or later.

The above summary is based on a detailed account published by the Army Air Forces Historical Association.

Base Beta (or simply, Beta) was the code name for the Army base on the present Isla Baltra during its WW-II military occupation, not an alternate name for the island itself.

Popular island references were:

Island NameWW-II popular usage
MosqueraSeal Island
Seymour, NorthLittle Seymour
Seymour, South (Baltra)The Rock
Santa CruzVera Cruz
† July 10, 1943: Air Service Command Interview with Major E. A. Goodman.

U. S. Government Papers

1941-1944: A collection of selected papers, letters, memoranda, about the Galápagos Islands during WWII, issued by, or sent to, the U. S. Government. The documents have been re-typed for readability, but all original spelling, punctuation, formatting etc. has been retained. Use the buttons on each page to sequentially read other papers in the series, or to return to the Bibliography.

U. S. Hydrographic Office

The 1942 chart is derived from British Admiralty Chart #1375. The British Survey was conducted in 1835, not 1836 as stated on the chart. The corrections to 1942 are based on the USS Bowditch survey of that year. This is the first known published chart on which Isla Genovesa is drawn with some accuracy. However, a 1930 sketch map by Russell Lyons shows the island with a similar shape.

The 2002 chart was prepared by recording entries from the Bowditch deck log on the revised Admiralty chart. The Galápagos survey was conducted from the ship during three visits in 1942:

  • 30 April - 26 June
  • 15 July - 31 August
  • 10 September - 14 October

U. S. National Archives

The Index contains records of 26,213 U.S. military personnel and others processed through the Gorgas Hospital Mortuary, and contains 42 records of deaths occurring in the Galápagos Islands during WWII. Each record includes the name, social security number or other unique personal identifier, age, race, nationality, occupation, employer, date of death, place of death, the date the body was received by the mortuary, the person identified as being responsible for the remains, the place of burial, date of cremation, disposition of cremation remains, register entry number, marker, section, row, grave, cost, and remarks. The list has been edited to remove redundant entries and columns containing no data.

U. S. Navy

In the Galápagos Monograph:
p. 92: The Galápagos Islands chart indicates potential sites for military installations, based on surveys conducted since about 1910.
p. 260: “Submarine Rock, approximately 1000 yards E. of Daphne Major Islet is so named because of its resemblance to a submarine on the surface. It only extends 12 feet above high water. Landings can be effected with difficulty.”

William Upham

Herbert Ford's Pitcairn Island as a Port of Call: A Record, 1790-2010 contains the following excerpt (p. 37), apparently from the log book of an unknown whaling ship which apparently spoke the Empire:

December 21 (1852) • Whale ship Empire of Nantucket, 403 tons, from Tahiti, bound for Terrapin Island in the Galapagos Islands, Captain William Upham.

Temple Utley

p. 156. “With a small boat and a motor the way in [to Academy Bay] is quite simple if you take the eastern passage between Jensen [Caamaño] Island and the shore.”

George Vancouver

p. 1465. “… this is the south-west point of Marlborough island, which is situated according to our observations in latitude 50' south, longitude 268° 34' east [ie, 91°26' W].”
Vancouver is actually referrring to Albemarle (Isabela) Island here.

Hernán Vargas, Heidi M. Snell et al

p. 30. “… a tiny islet known as Piedra Dura (Hard Rock), 1°14'18''S, 90°28'42''W.”

Bolívar Icaza Villamil & Antonio Gil

English translation of a contract regarding cattle.

“The following contract has taken place between Bolívar Icaza Villamil and Antonio Gil:

  1. Icaza Villamil rents to Gil the rights that, as heir to the property of his mother: doña Bolívar villamil de Icaza, pertain to him over the cattle of the islands of the Galápagos Archipelago, so that Gil may export them live from the islands or slaughter them.
  2. Gil will pay Icaza for this rental the sum of five sucres for each head of cattle that he ships, or that he takes upon himself to tame or slaughter.
  3. The rest of the animals, that for the same reason belong to Icaza on the mentioned islands, will be the subject of another contract, if Gil wishes to exploit them.
  4. Signing the present contract, Gil will give to Icaza at his own cost, an advance of one-thousand sucres, which will be reimbursed to Gil by discounting monthly 25% of the amount that is owed to Icaza at the end of the monthly accounts.
  5. In the case that the company that Gil represents, with whom Icaza makes the present contract, buys the rights and shares that the heirs of General Villamil have in all the Archipelago, and although this sale involves the rights belonging to Icaza, Icaza remains recognized in fact by said company as a full partner, and will be given, in shares, the amount equal to the sum he receives for the part that he sells.
  6. The duration of the present contract will be voluntary for both parties, with a notice of one year in anticipation for its termination.
    Each party will keep a copy of the present contract.

Guayaquil, the third of May of eighteen-hundred and ninety-seven.”

[Signed] Bolívar Icaza Villamil         Antonio Gil

José Villamil

“The island named Duncan, that has been called with the name of my beloved daughter [Ana], can be colonized with success, … .”

B. Villaret

p. 67. Footnote 7 (p. 80) in Lanza 1982 states that Caamaño is named “Camaño by Villaret.”

Le Sieur de Villefort

The author is believed to be the French Ensign Le Sieur Villefort, who served aboard the frigate Phélypeaux, Captain Jacques Gouin de BeauchĂȘne.

p. 381. [See the Island Names notes page for details about his references to Isles de Tabac and Santé.]

p. 381. “The Isle Mascarin … in 1° 12' South latitude.”

Victor Wolfgang von Hagen

1945: South America Called Them

In Part III, the author describes the life and work of Charles Darwin. A description of Robert FitzRoy states (p. 176):

“He had seen service in the Mediterranean and in 1826, with the ships Adventure and Beagle, had begun the coastal survey of South America. In 1828 Captain Stokes of the Beagle committed suicide. As his first officer, FitzRoy took his place and continued the survey. Impressed, the Admiralty gave him command of the Beagle. … He returned to England in 1828.”

At the time of Stokes' suicide in Tierra del Fuego, FitzRoy was in fact Flag Lieutenant on HMS Ganges in Rio de Janeiro, recently arrived under the command of Sir Robert Otway. Presumably Stokes and FitzRoy were acquainted, as they both served on HMS Owen Glendower in 1819; Stokes as a Lieutenant, FitzRoy as a volunteer. But chances are FitzRoy knew little or nothing of the Beagle when Sir Robert appointed him as its new captain. Accordingly, he brought the Beagle back to Tierra del Fuego in 1829, to resume the work that had been interrupted by the suicide. He (and the Beagle) returned to England in October, 1830.

1949: Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands

p. 175. (n. 5) “They were named ‘Isolas de Galápagos’ by Abraham Ortelius … . The islands first appeared in their correct position cartographically and were named ‘Galápagos’ in the Orbus Terrarum of Ortelius. (Peruviae Auriferae Regionis Typus, 1574.)” [Possible source for account by Slevin, 1959, p. 18.]
p. 184. “Privateer's Rock, now called Dalrymple Rock.”
p. 211. List gives Grande as another name for Chatham; Rábida and Guerra are mislinked to Culpepper. Refer to Ortelius (above) for notes on first appearance and corrections to von Hagen's chronology.

Victor W. von Hagen & Quail Hawkins

Although a work of juvenile fiction, the character “Finsen” is apparently based on Walter Finsen. See Who Was Walter Finsen? for more details.

Helena Ann (or Helene Anne) “Quail” Hawkins (1905-2002) was an authority on children's literature.

Kurt Vonnegut

p. 59. “She would be born on Santa Rosalia.”

Lionel Wafer

p. 151. “I staid with Captain Davis in the Batchelors Delight;§ and he was for going again to the Southward.”
This is the only known printed reference to the name of the ship which carried Wafer and his shipmates William Ambrosia Cowley and William Dampier to the Galápagos Islands.

§ The presence of the “t” in the first word is presumably not an error, as this was an alternative spelling of the word, also seen in other works, such as The Alchemist by Ben Jonson (1572-1637): “… and I'm a batchelor, Worth nought:”

Jonathan Weiner

p. 137. “… on the far northern island of Nuñez.” and “… to Nuñez, at the farthest northern edge of the archipelago.” (Author's original ms. citations of “Wolf” changed to “Nuñez” by editor, based on Steadman & Zousmer 1988. Original citations restored in revised first edition.)

Barbara West

The author's Table summarizes observations about feral animals taken from the sources indicated.

W. M. White

“The name Wittmer Seamount is used in a Ph.D. dissertation (Harpp, K. S., Magmatic Evolution at Hotspots and Mid-Ocean Ridges: Isotopic and Trace Element Studies from the Galápagos Islands and the East Pacific Rise, Cornell University, 1994” (personal communication).

Margret & Heinz Wittmer

The unpublished What Happened on Galápagos? manuscript was written by Margret and Heinz Wittmer for Captain G. Allan Hancock, who commissioned Sydney Skamser to translate it into English.

Floreana Adventure, p. 156. “… the tiny seal island of Loveria [sic], [near Post Office Bay].”
p. 160 & 164. Margret Wittmer states that her husband Heinz went to nearby Chatham Island (Isla San Cristóbal) in April 1940 to inquire about his military obligations. He returned within a few weeks with news that “The German Embassy in Quito let me know that at present there is no possibility of my leaving Ecuador. I'm to wait quietly here till I'm called.” The author offers no explanation how her husband sent his inquiry to Quito, and received a reply within such a short time.